energy metabolism is?
includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends the energy from food.
What is Metabolism?
- Sum of all chemical reactions that take place in living cells.
-Energy you get from eating plants/animals.
-Dont get all the energy.
Carbohydrates go to what in absorption?
Lipids go to what in absorption?
Glycerol + Fatty Acids
Proteins go to what in absorption?
-primarily for building protein
- 10-15% comes from protien
Smaller molecules are put together to build larger molecules.
-Have to put energy in to occur
Both types of reactions are common because? (anabolism and catabolism)
in metabolic pathways dependent on the metabolic state of the person.
fed vs. fasted
Large molecules are broken down to small molecules
-energy is released
In general we store energy as either what? (2 ways)
fat (main way)
The energy released from the breakdown of these 4 basic building blocks is often captured in what bonds?
Common high energy storage compound.
-As we start to release energy it is temporarly stored in ATP.
- During chemical reactions
What makes up a couple reaction?
ATP and parent compound
What is ATP used for?
Used to transfer energy released during catabolic rxn's to power its anabolic reactions.
-Heat is released when happening about 60% is heat.
-some energy is lost as heat
Pyruvate has how many carbon compounds?
Acetyle CoaA has how many carbon compounds?
NADH and FADH2 are what?
complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to affilate activity.
Pyruvate can be used to make what and acetyle CoA can not?
Number of Carbons are key to what?
Were they enter metabolisum.
3 carbon structures are used to make what?
2 carbon structures can not make what?
fatty acids enter at?
ACetyl CoA which is why they can not form glucose
Some Amino Acids can make what?
NADH and FADH2 go to what?
the electron transport chain and are used to make ATP
glucose ----> pyravate=
NADH and FADH2 don't produce what in the same amounts?
Oxygen has to be present, if not goes towards lactate
Does not have oxygen?
Pyruvate can enter 1 or 2 ways dependent on what?
Because fatty acids come in as acetyl CoA they can not be used to make?
Fatty Acids enter as?
2 carbon compounds combined with COA to form Acetyl COA
called fatty acid oxidation
3 carbon compound
used to go towards glucose
There are 3 ways TG provide compounds to make ATP what are they?
1. glycerol (3 carbon comp.) enters as pyrubate
2. The assetal CoA fatty acid entering the TCA cycle
3. NADH and FADH2 from fatty acid that enters the electron train.
can enter as intermediates of the TCA cycle
many Amin acids can be used to make?
this will be important when we consider a long term fast.
3 major keytone bodies?
Produces small amounts
always have some in system
Reduces loss of appitite
your brain gives up telling you that you are hungry.
low carb diets can force you into this
Nutrigenetics refers to what?
The specific gene sequence differences between humans and how these affect the differences in repsonses to diet and particular needs for nutrients.
The study of the effects of diet on the expression of all genes and their functions
Nutrition 203 Test 3