1. Daoism
    Mystic and inward looking Chinese religion.
  2. Confucianism
    Chinese religion concerned with norms of moral behavior
  3. Buddhism
    Major religion in China emphasizing meditation and inner knowledge
  4. diao
    Pentatonic modes without semitones
  5. zheng
    • curved board zither with 21 strings
    • bridges can move to tune strings
  6. pipa
    four-string pear-shaped fretted lute
  7. huqin
    traditional bowed lutes
  8. erhu
    two-string bowed spike fiddle
  9. jinghu
    bowed spike fiddle pitched an octave above the erhu
  10. sihu
    Four string fiddle
  11. sanxian
    • fretless fingerboard lute with shallow resonator
    • used in opera and epic narratives
  12. yueqin
    • plucked fingerboard lute with circular resonator
    • used in opera and storytelling
  13. ruan
    earliest version of yueqin
  14. yangqin
    hammered box-zither
  15. paixiao
    end-blown bamboo pipes
  16. xiao
    vertical bamboo notch flute
  17. dizi
    transverse bamboo flute
  18. suona
    double-reed instrument
  19. sheng
    multiple pipe single reed instrument with air chamber
  20. luo
  21. bianzhong
    Collections of bronze bells
  22. dagu
    • Large barrel-shaped drum with riveted heads
    • Used in folk, religious, and court music
  23. xiaogu
    Small horizontal drum on a stand
  24. ban
    idiophone - wooden slats on a string
  25. guqin
    Sophisticated Chinese zither
  26. harmonic
    • Hand lightly touches vibrating string but does not stop vibration
    • Creates higher pitch than open string
  27. fan yin
    Chinese word for harmonic
  28. Ping sha lo yen
    • "Wild Geese Descending onto the Sandbank"
    • Guqin song
  29. bo
    Small cymbals
  30. luogu
    Gong and drum folk ensembles
  31. guchui
    Folk ensemble with gong, drum, and two suona
  32. sizhu
    • silk-and-bamboo ensembles
    • Feature dizi, sanxian, erhu and other soft instruments with ban for tempo
  33. Fan Instead of Gong
    • Sizhu song
    • Variation on a parent tune
  34. kunqu
    Classical dramatic form
  35. jingxi
    • Beijing Opera
    • most popular dramatic form
  36. The Drunken Concubine
    Jingxi song
  37. Cui Jian
    Popular Chinese musician banned by the communist government for his performance
  38. Twelve Girls Band
    "Pop instrumental" group featuring women from music conservatories and orchestras on traditional instruments
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