Child Psych

  1. long term memory
    our permanent knowledge base
  2. stone model
    of the information-processing system assumes that we hol, or store info. in three parts of the mental system for processing
  3. Development of information processing increased in two broad ways?
    • 1. capacity- memory span and processing speed
    • 2. strategy use- chunking
  4. Neo-piagetian perspective
    • suggest change within each stage due to increase in
    • 1. working memory capacity
    • 2. brain development
    • 3. practice with schemes and automatization
    • 4. central conceptual structure
  5. evolutionary perspective on cognition
    • -generate variety of strategies
    • -selected strategies survive
    • -others die off
  6. overlapping waves theory
    • -try variety of strategies
    • -observe how well they work
    • - gradually select those leading to rapid, accurate answers
  7. ways of finding more efficient strategies
    • -using slower technique
    • -problem requires it
    • -reasoning about concpets
    • -being taught
  8. types of attention
    • -sustained
    • -selective
    • -adaptable
  9. sustained attention
  10. selective attention
    focus back and forth
  11. adaptable attention
    whats in your best interest
  12. development of sustained attention
    • increases sharply between 2 and 3-1/2 yrs.
    • -frontal lobe growth
    • -more complex play goals
    • - adult scaffolding
  13. cognitive inhibition
    • ability to control distracting stimuli
    • -internal- thoughts (anxiety)
    • -external- distractions (ADHD)

    • Improves from infancy on
    • -gains on complex tasks from middle school to adolescence
  14. development of attention strategies
    • 1. production deficiency
    • 2. control deficicency
    • 3. utilization deficiency
    • 4. effective strategy use
  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactive disorder (ADHD)
    • inattention
    • impulsivity
    • excessive motor activity

    results in social and academic problems
  16. planning
    • -begins in infancy
    • -improves with age
    • -tools, teaching, practice help children learn to _____
  17. steps in planning
    • -postponing action to weigh alternatives (inhibition)
    • -organizing task materials
    • - remembering steps of plan
    • -monitoring how well plan works
    • -revising if necessary
  18. strategies for storing information
    • -reherasal
    • -organization
    • -elaboration

    creating shared meaning or a relationship betwn two pieces of info.
  19. recognition
    • -noticing that a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced
    • -easier than recall
  20. recall
    • -generating a mental representation of an absent stimulues
    • -more difficult than recognition
  21. constructive processing
    -we select and interpret info. as it is encoded stored or retrieved

    can happen deliberately or due to "fuzzy trace"
  22. semantic memory
    • -vast
    • - oganized- taconimically or hierarchically
    • - grows from episodic memory
    • -repeated event form script
    • -structed general knowledge
  23. autobiographical memory
    • -long lasting representation of one time events
    • -persoanl meaning
    • -dev. basis after age 2
    • -parents help dev. narrative
  24. eyewitness memory
    • preschoolers' testimony less reliable than school age children's
    • - less dev. lang. skills
    • -desire to please
    • -poorer source-monitoring
    • -bias toward specifics; less gist memory
    • -less skill with autobiographical narratives-may leave out details
    • -suggestibility
  25. metacognition
    • -awareness and understanding of various aspects of thought
    • -dev. with
    • 1. theory of mind
    • 2. knowledge of mental activity- cognitive capacities, strategies, task variables
  26. emergent literacy
    children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through experiences
  27. early childhood mathematical reasoning Ordinality
    • relationships between quantities
    • 14-16 months
  28. early childhood mathematical reasoning Cardinality
    when counting, last number is the total
  29. advantages of info. processing approach
    • -breaks complex cognitive activites into precise components
    • -provides details of aga and skill-related differences
    • -describes precise mechanisms of cognitive dev.
  30. disadvantages of info. processing approach
    • -components hard to combine into broad pic
    • -cpu metaphors simplify real life experience;overlooks nonlinear aspects, interaction with others
    • -slow to include bio. evolution
  31. ADHD diagnosis
    • - at least 6 of 9 symptoms of either inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, or 6 or more of each in both
    • -inpairments/symptoms before 7 yrs old
    • -2 or more settings
    • -clinical impairments in social, academic, etc
    • not better accounted for ( PDD, anxiety)
  32. Fuzzy trace theory
    infomation is reconstructed automatically at encoding into a vague fuzzy version called gist
  33. Spearman
    believed that factor analysis are correlated
  34. Thurston
    "g" not important unrelated "primary mental abilities are most impt. currently of approach
  35. factor analysis
    • -identifies sets of test items that cluster together
    • - ppl. who do well on one item do well on others in cluster, or factor
  36. componential analysis
    -examines relationships btwn info. processing components and children's performance on intell tests
  37. Sternberg's triarchic theory of intell
    • -analytical intell- apply strategies
    • -creative intel-solve novel problems
    • -practical intel-adapt to
  38. Gardner's multiple intelligence
    • -linguistic
    • -logico-mathematical
    • -spatial
    • -musical
    • -bodily kinesthetic
    • -interpersonal
    • -intrapersonal
  39. group test
    • -allow testing of large groups
    • -require little training to adminster
    • -usefuk for instructional planning
    • -identify students who need indiv. testing
  40. indiv. test
    • -examiners need training and experience- provide insight about accuracy of score
    • -identify highly intell. children and also those with learning problems

    example: stanford binet
  41. communication styles of higher SES whites
    • -knowledge-training questions
    • -topic focused story style
    • -hierarchical task style
  42. communication styles lower SES minorities
    • -real question
    • -topic-associating style
    • -collaborative task style
  43. Cultural bias in testing two views
    • 1. test not biased; represent success in the common culture
    • 2. cultural factors can hurt test performance
    • -communication styles
    • - culture-specific content
    • - sterotypes
  44. Types of home enviromental influences Shared
    affect all siblings similarly
  45. types of home environment Nonshared
    make siblings different from one another
  46. Nonshared environmental influences
    • - birth order
    • -spacing
    • -sibling relationships
    • -parental favorites
    • -assigned roles
    • -different impact of family events
    • -inlfuences away from home
  47. creativity
    ability to produce original appropriate work
  48. creativity- psychometric approach
    diverent thinking
  49. creativity investment theory
    novel project increases chances of creative, valuable product
  50. component of language-phonology
    rules about structure and sequence of speech of counds
  51. component of language-semantics
    vocab.-words and word combinations for concepts
  52. component of lang. Grammar
    • syntax-rules for sentences
    • morphology-grammatical markers
  53. components of lang. Pragmatics
    appropriate and effective communication
  54. Behaviorist theory of lang. dev.
    learned through operant cond. (reinforcement) and imitation
  55. Nativist theories of lang. dev.
    language acquisition device (LAD) biologically prepares infants to learn rule of lang. through univeral grammar
  56. Interactionist theory of lang. dev
    inner capacities and environment work together; social context is important
  57. broca's area
    • effortful speech
    • grammatical processing and language production
  58. wernicke's area
    comprehending word meanings
  59. language acquisition device
    an innate system that permits them, as soon as they have acquired sufficient vocabulary, to combine words into grammatically consistent, novel utterances and to understant the meaning of sentences they hear
  60. categorical speech perception
    ability to distinguish phonemes

    tendency to preceive range of a sounds phonemic class as identical (hard/soft)
  61. underextension
    apply words too narrowly
  62. child directed speech
    form of communication made up of short sentences with high pitched exaggerated expression , clear ponounciation disinct pauses between speech segments, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts
  63. cooing
    vowel like noises 2 months

  64. babbling
    ´╗┐repeat constant vowel combinations in long strings
  65. protodeclatative
    boby touches an objcet holds it up or points to it while looking at at other to make sure they notice
  66. protoimperative
    infant gets another person to do something by reach, pointing and ofetn making sounds at the same time
  67. fast mapping
    children can connect a new word with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter
  68. referential style
    their vocabularies consit of words that refer to objects
  69. expressive style
    they produce many more social formulas and pronouns
  70. underextension
    apply words too narrowly
  71. overextension
    applying a word to a broader collaboration of objects and event thatn is appropriate
  72. phonological store
    • permits us to retain speech based information
    • inlfuence of memory on language
  73. lexical contrast theory
    • assumes two principles govern vocab growth: Conventionality, childrens natural desire to acquire the words and word meaning of their lang community
    • and Contrast which explains how new owrd they hear is unique. there fore when they hear a new label they try to figure out its meaning by contrasting it with words they know and assigning it to gap in their vocab
  74. mutual exclusivity bias
    that is, they assume that words refer to entierely separate (non overlapping categories)
  75. telegraphic speech
    focus on high content words and leave out smaller, less impt. ones
  76. overregularization
    but once children grasp regular morphological rule they extend it to words that are exceptions
  77. word coinages
    make up new words rule based
  78. syntactic bootstrapping
    discover meaning by how words are used in syntax, structure of sentences
  79. shading - pragmatic dev.
    change in topic is initiated gradually by modifying the focus of discussion
  80. illocutionary knowledge- pramatic dev.
    knowing what is meant/intended even if the form of utterance is not perfectly consisitent with it.
  81. billingual education
    support and instruction in native lang. while learning engl.
  82. emotions
    • rapid appraisal of personal significance of situations
    • energized behavior prepare for action
  83. basic emotions
    happiness, interest, suprise, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, universal in humans and other primates
  84. functions of emotions -effect of emotion
    • lead to learning essential for survival
    • can impair learning
  85. functions of emotions- social
    • affect behavior of others
    • regulate own behavior
  86. functions of emotions- health
    • influence well-being growth
    • stress related to diseases
  87. Coping strategies- Problem-centered coping
    • -used when situation is seen as changeable
    • -identify the difficulty
    • -decide what to do about it
  88. Coping strategies- Emotion centered coping
    • -used if problem-centered coping does not work
    • -internal private control of distress
  89. social referencing
    relying on another person's emotional reaction to appraise an uncertain situation
  90. emotional self-regulation
    refers to strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals
  91. common early-childhood fears
    monsters, ghost,, darkness, preschool child care, animals
  92. prosocial or altruistic behavior
    actions that benefit another person without expected reward for the self
  93. empathy
    feeling same or similar emotions as another person

    "I can see where your coming from"
  94. sympathy
    feelings of concern or sorrow for another's plight
  95. temperament
    social warm good at emotional regulation lead to high empathy
  96. effortful control
    self regulatory dimension of temperament; voluntary supressing a dominant response for more adaptive behavior
  97. easy child- temperament
    child quickly est. regular routines in infancy is generally cheerful and adapts easily to new experiences
  98. difficult child- temperament
    child has irregular daily routines is slow to accept new experiences and tends to react negatively and intensely
  99. slow to warm up child - temperament
    child inactive, shows mild, low key, reaction to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjust slowly to new experiences
  100. inhibited, shy -temperament
    • -react negatively withdraw from new stimuli
    • -high heart rates, stress hormones and stress symptoms
    • -higher right hemisphere frontal cortex activity
  101. unihibited sociable
    • -react positively approach new stimuli
    • -low heart rates, stress hormones, and stress symptoms
    • -high left hemipshere frontal cortex activity
  102. types of attachment
    • secure
    • avoidant
    • resistant
    • disorganized/disoriented
  103. goodness of fit model
    describe how temperament and environmental pressures can together produce favorable outcomes
  104. ethological theory of attachment
    • 1. preattachment
    • 2. attachment in the making
    • 3. clear cut attachment
    • -separation anxiety
    • 4. formation of a reciprocal relationship
  105. attachment
    strong, affectionate tie we have with special ppl in our lives that leads us to feel pleasure when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness during times of stress
  106. I Self
    • sense of self as agent
    • separate from surrounding world
    • can control own thoughts and actions
  107. Me-Self
    • sense of self as object of knowledge and evaluation
    • qualities that make self unique
    • -physical charact
    • -material charact
    • -social charact
  108. self recognition
    identification of the self as a physically unique being
  109. categorical self
    classify self and others by age, sex, physical charact.,goodness/badness
  110. remembered self
    • "life story" of autbiographical memories
    • dev. from adult-child conversations
    • based on own history
  111. factors that contribute to theory of mind
    • language
    • cognitive abilities
    • attachment
    • maternal
    • make believe play
    • social interaction
  112. self esteem
    • judgments we make about our own worth
    • feelings about those judgments include - global appraisal & judgments of different aspects of self
  113. desire theory of mind
    they think that ppl always act in ways consistnet with their desires and do not understand that less obvious more interpretive mental states such as beliefs affect behavior
  114. influences on self esteem
    • age school transitions
    • culture
    • child rearing practices
  115. achievement related attributions mastery oriented
    • attribute success to abilty
    • incremental views of ability- can imporve by trying
    • foucs on learning goals
  116. achievement related attributions- learned helplessness
    • attribute failure to ability
    • entity view of ability- cannot be changed
    • focus on performance goals
  117. self concept
    the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes and values that an indiv. believes defines who he or she is
  118. social comparisons
    judging their appearance abilities and behavior in relation to those of others
  119. identity- Erikson theory
    • defining who you are what you value and direction in life
    • commitments to vocation, persoanal, sexual orientation, ethnic group, ideals
    • resolution of "indentity crisis" or exploration
  120. identity confusion- Erikson theory
    • lack of direction and definition of self
    • restricted exploration in adolscence- earlier psychosocial conficts not resolved. society restricts choices
    • unprepared for stages of adulthood
  121. identity achievement
    commitment to values, beliefs and goals following period of exploration
  122. identity foreclosure
    commitment in the absence of exploration
  123. identity diffusion
    an apathetic state characterized by lack of both exploration and commitment
  124. perspective taking
    improves greatly from childhood to adolescenceas Selman's five stage sequence indicates
Card Set
Child Psych
Adv. child psych chapters 7-11