which of the following can be removed by polishing?
stain that adheres directly to the surfaces
stain contained within calculus and soft debris
stain incorporated within the tooth structure or the restorative material
stain that adheres directly to the surfaces
stain collected within calculus and soft debris
Which type of stain occurs on the external surface of the tooth and may be reomved by procedures of toothbrushing, scaling, and/or polishing?
Which type of stain occurs within the tooth substance and cannot be removed by thechniques of scaling or polishing?
What stains deveolop or originate from sources outside the tooth? They may be extrinsic and stay on the outer surface of the tooth, or intrinsic and become incorporated within the tooth?
What stains develop or originated from within the tooth? They are always intrinsic and usually are discolorations of the dentin relfected through enamel
What are 2 different classifications of stain?
location: extrinsic or intrinsic
source: exogenous or endogenous
What are 3 important factors in recognizing and identifying the type and etiology of stains?
medical and dental history
oral hygiene habits
When stains are tenacious, excessive _______ is avoided. As _______ an abrasive agent as possible is used. precautions are taken to avoid what 3 things?
abrasion of tooth surface or gingival margin
removal of a layer of fl2-rich tooth surface
overheating with a power-driven polisher
What are 3 procedures for stain removal?
toothbrushing: for stains directly within biofilm or pellicle
tooth deposits: when stain is in the soft deposit or calc, it is removed with the deposit
What are the most frequently observed extrinsic stains? (4) What are the less common extrinsic stains observed? (3)
most common: yellow, green, black line, tobacco
less common: orange, red, metallic
The clinical appearance of _______ stain is dull, yellowish discoloration of dental biofilm
The distribution of ________ stain on the tooth surfaces is associated with the presence of dental biofilm.
Which stain occurs commonly to all ages, and is more evident when personal oral care precedures are neglected? And is usually caused by food pigments?
Which type of stain is embedded into the dental biofilm and is frequently superimposed by soft yellow or gray debris (materia alba and food debris)?
What are the 3 general forms that green stain occurs in?
small curved line following contour of facial gingival crest
smeared irregularaly, may even cover entire facial surface
streaked, following grooves or lines in enamel
What type of stain may become embedded in surface enamel and be observed as an exogenous intrinsic stain when superfucial layers of deposit are removed?
In what type of stain does enamel under it sometimes demineralize as a result of cariogenic biofilm? The rough demineralized surface encourages biofilm retention, demineralization, and recurrence of the stain.
The distribution of what type of stain is primarily facial, may extend to proximal, and is most frequently seen on the facial cervical third of maxillary anterior teeth?
Which type of stain is composed of chromogenic bacteria and fungi, decomposed hemoglobin, inorganic elements including calcium, potassium, sodium, silicon, magnewium, phosphorus, and other elements?
Which type of stain may occur at any age but is primarily found in children and collects on both permanent and primary teeth?
true or false. Green stain may be recurring. recurrence depends on fastidiousness of personal care procedures.
both are true
What type of stain results from oral uncleanliness, chromogenic bacteria, and gingival hemorrhage? Chromogenci bacteria or fungi are retained and nourished in biofilm where stain is produced. Blood pigments from hemoglobing are decomposed by bacteria. Predisposing factors are the presence of means for retention and proliferation of chromogenic bacteria
true or false. Do not scale the area of green stain, often, an area of demineralzied tooth structure underlies the stain and soft deposites
Dental biofilm and acquired pellicle may become stained a green color by a variety of stubstances including what 3 things?
metallic dusts of industry
certain drugs. the stain from smoking marijuana may appear grayish-green
Which type of stain is a highly retentive calculus-like stain that forms along the gingival third near the gingival margin that may occur on primary or permanent teeth/
black line stain
What are 3 other names for black line stain?
pigmented dental biofilm
In which type of stain is the gingiva firm, with little or no tendency to bleed, and the teeth are frequently clean and shiny with a tendency to lower incidence of dental caries?
Which type of stain is found on the facial and lingual surfaces and follows the contour of gingival crest onto proximal surfaces? Is rarely on the facial surface of max ant. teeth? And is MOST FREQUENTLY ON THE LINGUAL AND PROXIMAL SURFACES OF MAX POST TEETH?
Which type of stain is composed of microorganisms embedded in an intermicrobial substance, microorganisms primarily gram-positive rods, the attachment to the tooth is by a pellicle-like structure, and mineralization of it is similar to calc?
Which type of stain forms in all ages but more common in kids and females, and is frequently found in clean mouths?
which type of stain tends to form again despite regular personal care, but the quantity may be less when biofilm control precedures are meticulous?
Are there predisposing factors for black line stain?
no, natural tendency
Which type of stain appears light brown to dark leathery brown or black? is diffuse staining of dental biofilm and a narrow band that follows contour of gingival crest, slightly above the crest, and is wide, firm, tarlike, band that may cover cervical third and extend to central third of crown
Which type of stain is incorporated in calc deposit, and heavy deposites may penetrate the enamel and become exogenous intrinsic?
Which type of stain is distributed primarily on the cervical third, but can be on any surface as well as pits and fissures, but is MOST FREQUENTLY ON THE LINGUAL SURFACES?
Which stain is composed of tar and products of combustion, and brown pigment from smokeless tobacco?
What are 3 predisposing factors for tobacco staine?
natural tendencies: quantity of stain is NOT proportional to amt of tobacco used
personal oral care procedures
extend of biofilm and calc: available for adherence
What are 5 'other' brown stains observed?
Stannous fluoride: forms on pellicle after repeated used of stannous fl2; from formation of stannous sulfide or brown tin oxide
foodstuffs: tea, coffee, soy sauce
anti-biofilm agents: chlorhexidine
beta leaf: common in eastern countries
What type of stain is described?
appear at cervical third, more frequently on ant than post teeth, occurence is rare, forms from chromogenic bacteria
red and orange stain
Is red or orange stain more rare?
Which color would be seen on each of the following metallic stains?
copper or brass
green or bluish-green
brown to greenish-brown
yellow or golden-brown
Where are metallic stains usually distributed?
primarily on anterior teeth and the cervical third is more commonly affected
true or false. occasionally, metallic stains may penetrate tooth substance and become exogenous intrinisc stain?
Which type of stain forms when an industrial worker inhales dust through the mouth, bringing in metallic substances in contactiwith teeth?
What are 2 common metallic stains from drugs?
iron: black (iron sulfid) or brown
manganese (from potassium permanganate): black
Which type of stain can occur on all surfaces of teeth? the drug enters biofilm and imparts color to biofilm and calc, and a way to prevent is is to used medications through a straw or in tablet or capsule to prevent direct contact with teeth?
metallic substances contained in drugs
Which type of stain may be related to the period of tooth development?
Which type of stain is described?
–Light yellow, brown, gray, reddish-brown, dark brown, bluish-black, black
–Blood and pulp tissue
–Pulp chamber hemorrhage
–Pigments penetrate dentinal tubules
Which type of stain is caused by antibiotics and can be transferred through the placenta? Can result when drug is administered to mother during 3rd trimester, or during infancy and early childhood? Color may be light green to dark yellow, or a gray-brown, and it may be generalized or localized?
Which type of tooth development may reslutlfrom factors of genetic/hereditary abnormality or environmental influences during tooth development?
imperfect tooth development
What are 2 hereditary: genetic types of imperfect tooth development?
dentinogenesis imperfecta (opalescent dentin)
the enamel is partially or completely missing because of a generalized disturbance of the ameloblasts. teeth are yellowish-brown or gray-brown
the dentin is abnormal as a result of disturbances in the odontoblastic layer during development. The teeh appear translucent or opalescent and vary in color from gray to bluish-brown
dentinogenesis imperfecta ( Opalescent dentin)
What are 2 types of enamel hypoplasia?
systemic and local hypoplasia
chronologic __________ resulting from ameloblastic disturbance of short duration. Teeth erupt with white spots or with pits. Over a period of time, the white spots may become discolored from food pigments or other substances taken in to mouth
Affects a single tooth. White spots may become stained as in systemic ______
type of endogenous intrinsic stain that was originally called "brown stain" but then was called mottled enamel.
type of stain that results from ingestion of excessif fluoride ion in water during the period of mineralization. alterations are a result of toxic damage to ameloblasts. teeth have white spots are areas that become discolored and appear brown. severe effects of this may produce crachs or pitting
What is too much fl2 in drinking water that may cause fluorosis?
more than 2 ppm
What are 3 stages of dental fluorosis?
severe: cracks or pitting (mottled enamel)
Name 2 "other" systemic causes of endogenous intrinsic stains.
blood-borne pigments: circulating in blood transmitted to dentin, i.e. prolonged jaundice can cause teeth to be yellow or green
erythroblastosis fetalis (Rh incompatibility): may leave a green, brown, or blue hue to teeth
name 2 examples of extrinsic stains that commonly provide stain that becomes intrinsic.
What are 2 types of restorative materials that can cause exogenous intrinsic staining?
silver amalgam: gray to black aroun restoration; metallic ions go from restoration into enamel and dentin; silver, tin, and mercury ions
copper amalgam: used for primary teeth, may ipart a bluish green color
Name 5 endodontic therapy materials that can cause exogenous intrinsic staining, and the colors they exhibit.
sliver nitrate: bluish-black
volatile oils: yellowish-brown
strong iodine: brown
sliver-containing root canal sealer: black
What is an example of an exogenous intrinsic stain in dentin?
discoloration resulting from a carious lesion
What are 5 recordings we need to make in regards to stains?
additions to HHX concerning oringin of stain related to tooth development, systemic disease, occupations or meds