nut 110

  1. Flavor
    • Appearance
    • Smell
    • Taste
    • Feel in mouth
    • Texture
    • Sounds made when chewed
  2. Taste
    Sensations perceived by the taste buds on the tongue
  3. Where are taste buds found?
    • tongue
    • cheeks
    • throat
    • roof of mouth
  4. How many recepter cells are on each taste buds?
    60 to 100
  5. How often does the body regenerate taste buds?
    every 3 days
  6. What are the 5 basic taste sensations?
    • sweet
    • sour
    • bitter
    • salty
    • umami
  7. Describe umami
    savory, sometimes meaty sensation
  8. Culture
    behaviors of a certain social, ethnic, or age group
  9. Nutrition
    science that studies nutrients and other substances in foods and in the body and the way those nutrients relate to health and disease. Also explores why you choose particular foods and the type of diet you eat
  10. Nutrients
    the nourishing substances in food that provide energy and promote the growth and maintenance of your body
  11. Diet
    the food and beverages you normally eat and drink
  12. Kilocalorie
    A measure of the energy in food, specificaly the energy-yielding nutrients
  13. Basal Metabolism
    The minimum energy needed by the body for vital functions when at rest and awake
  14. Thermic effect of food
    The energy needed to digest and absorb food
  15. How do you determine the number of kilocalories in a food?
    by burning a portion of that food and measuring the amount of heat (or kilocalories) it produces. A kilocalorie raises the temp of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree celsius
  16. Name the 6 classes of nutrients
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • protein
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • water
  17. What are Energy-Yielding Nutrients?
    Nutrients that can be burned as fuel to provide energy for the body, including carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
  18. What are micronutrients?
    Nutrients needed by the body in small amounts, including vitamins and minerals
  19. What are macronutrients?
    Nutrients needed by the body in large amounts, including carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
  20. Organic as it applies to chemistry
    Any compound that contains carbon
  21. Inorganic as it applies to chemistry
    Any compound that does not contain carbon
  22. Carbohydrates
    A large class of nutrients, including sugars, starch, and fibers, that function as the body's primary source of energy
  23. Lipids
    A group of fatty substances, including triglycerides and cholesterol, that are soluble in fat, not water, and that provide a rich source of energy and structure to cells.
  24. How many kilocalories per gram in Carbohydrates?
    4 kcalories per gram
  25. How many kcalories per gram in Lipids?
    9 kcalories per gram
  26. How many kcalories per gram in Protein?
    4 kcalories per gram
  27. Protein
    Major structural component of the body's cells that is made of nitrogen-containing amino acids assembled in chains, particularly rich in animal food
  28. Vitamins
    Noncaloric, organic nutrients found in a wide variety of foods taht are essential in small quantities to regulate body processes, maintain the body, and allow growth and reproduction.
  29. Minerals
    Noncaloric, inorganic chemical substances found in a wide variety of foods; needed to regulate body processes, maintain body, and allow growth and reproduction.
  30. Essential Nutrients
    Nutrients that either cannot be made in the body or cannot be made in the quantities needed by the body--we must obtain them from food
  31. Nutrient Density
    A measure of the nutrients provided in a food per kcalorie of that food
  32. Empty kcalorie foods
    foods that provide few nutrients for the number of kcalories they contain.
  33. What determines the number of kcalories you need?
    • basal metabolism
    • your level of physical activity
    • thermic effect of food
  34. Name the four characteristics of a nutritious diet
    • 1 adequate
    • 2 balanced
    • 3 moderate
    • 4 varied
  35. Adequate diet
    a diet that provides enough kcalories, essential nutrients, and fiber to keep a person healthy
  36. Moderate diet
    a diet that avoids excessive amounts of kcalories or any particular food or nutrient.
  37. Balanced diet
    A diet in which foods are chosen to provide kcalories, essential nutrients, and fiber in the right proprotions.
  38. Varied Diet
    A diet in which you eat a wide selebtion of foods to get necessary nutrients
  39. Dietary reference intake (DRIs)
    Nutrient standards that include four lists of values for dietary nutrient intakes of healthy Americans and Canadians
  40. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
    The dietary intake value that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy indvidiuals in a group
  41. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
    The dietary intake value that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of 96 to 98 percent of all healthy individuals in a group
  42. Adequate Intake (AI)
    The dietary intake that is used when there is not enough scientific research to support an RDA
  43. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
    The maximum intake level above which the risk of toxicity would increase
  44. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
    The percent of total kilocalories coming from carbohydrate, fat, or protein that is associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intake
  45. What is the body's composition?
    • 60% water
    • 20-25% fat
    • 15% protein
  46. Digestion
    The process by which food is broken down into its components in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine with the help of digestive enzymes
  47. Enzymes
    Compounds that speed up the breaking down of food so that nutrients can be absorbed. Also perform other funtions in the body.
  48. Absorption
    The passage of digested nutrients through the walls of the intestines or stomach into the body's cells. Nutrients are then transported through the body via blood or lymph
  49. Metabolism
    All the chemical processes by which nutrients are used to support life.
  50. Anabolism
    The metabolic process by which body tissues and substances are built
  51. Catabolism
    The metabolic processes by which large, complex molecules are converted to simpler ones.
  52. Gastrointestinal tract
    A hollow tube running down the middle of the body in which digestion of food and absorption of nutrients take place.
  53. Oral Cavity
    The mouth
  54. Saliva
    A fluid secreted into the mouth from the salivary glands that contains important digestive enzymes and lubricates the food so that it may readily pass down the esophagus
  55. Bolus
    A ball of chewed food that travels from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach
  56. Pharynx
    A passageway that connects the oral and nasal cavities to the esophagus and air tubes to the lungs.
  57. Epiglottis
    The flap that covers the air tubes to the lungs so that food does not enter the lungs during swallowing.
  58. Esophagus
    The muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach
  59. Peristalsis
    Involuntary muscular contration that forces food through the entire digestive system
  60. Lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter
    A muscle that relaxes and contracts to move food from the esophagus into the stomach
  61. Stomach
    • J-shaped muscular sac
    • holds 4 cups of food when full
    • prepares food chemically and mechanically so that it can be further digested and absorbed
  62. Hydrochloric Acid
    • strong acid made by stomach
    • Aids in protein digestion
    • destroys harmful bacteria
    • increases ability of calcium and iron to be absorbed
  63. Chyme
    • semi-liquid mixture in stomach
    • contains partially digested food and secretions
  64. Pyloric Sphincter
    Muscle that permits passage of chyme from the stomach to the small intestine
  65. Small intestine
    • digestive tract organ
    • extends from stomach to opening of large intestine
  66. Duodenum
    • 1st segment of small intestine
    • about 1 foot long
  67. Jejunum
    • 2nd segment of small intestine
    • between duodenum and ileum
  68. Ileum
    final segment of small intestine
  69. Bile
    • substance made by liver
    • stored in galbladder
    • released when fat enters the small intestine to help digest fat
  70. Villi
    • tiny fingerlike projections in the wall of the small intestines
    • involved in absorption
  71. Microvilli (brush border)
    • hair-like projections on the villi
    • increase the surface area for absorbing nutrients
  72. Large intesting (Colon)
    Part of GI tract between small intestine and rectum
  73. Rectum
    • last section of the large intestine
    • where feces is stored until elimination
  74. Anus
    • opening of the digestive tract
    • where feces travels out of body
  75. Flavor influences food choices by...
    • taste
    • smell
    • appearance
    • texture
  76. Other aspects of food that influence what you eat....
    • cost
    • convenience
    • availability
    • familiarity
    • nutrition
  77. Demograhics influence food choices by...
    • age
    • gender
    • educational level
    • income
  78. Culture and religion influence food choices by:
    • traditional foods and food habits
    • attitudes and beliefs
    • special events and celebrations
    • religious foods and food practices
  79. Health influences food choices by:
    • Health status and desire to improve health
    • desire to improve appearance
    • nutrition knowledge and attitudes
  80. Social and Emotional food Influences are:
    • social status
    • peer pressure
    • emotional status
    • food associations
  81. Food industry and Media influences are:
    • food industry
    • food advertising
    • food portrayal in media
    • reporting of nutrition/health studies
  82. Environmental concern food influences are:
    • Use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides
    • wastefulness of fattening up lievestock/poultry
  83. function of Carbohydrates?
    provide energy
  84. function of Lipids?
    • provide energy
    • promote growth and maintenance
    • regulate body processes
  85. function of Protein?
    • provide energy
    • promote growth and maintenance
    • regulate body processes
  86. function of vitamins?
    • promote growth and maintenance
    • regulate body processes
  87. function of minerals?
    • promote growth and maintenance
    • regulate body processes
  88. function of water?
    • promote growth and maintenance
    • regulate body processes
Card Set
nut 110
chapter 1