Lung Anatomy S1M3

  1. Pulmonary collapse is due to
    Damage to the visceral pleura of the lung causing it to collapse
  2. What happens during inspiration in a pulmonary collapse
    The mediastinum shifts towards the effected side
  3. In tension pneumothorax upon inspiration, what shift takes place
    The mediastinum shifts towards the unaffected side
  4. What is tension pneumothorax
    This is when air enters the pleura cavity through the thoracic wall or the visceral surface of the lung but it can not escape causing the lung to collapse
  5. What is pyothorax
    Pus in the lung
  6. Bronchogenic carcinoma normally metastasizes where
    Early on to the bronchopulmonary lymph nodes and then to thoracic lymph nodes
  7. Lung cancer often includes what nerves, having what effect
    • Phrenic, paralysis of hemidiaphragm
    • Recurrent Laryngeal, causing hoarseness of voice
  8. What is the clinical significance of the carina
    It has a sharp angle that can be seen with a bronchoscope to identify any abnormalities
  9. Inflammation of what lymph nodes would cause displacement of the carina
    Tracheobronchial lymph nodes
  10. Thoracocenthesis
    Removal of fluid, pus, or blood from the thoracic cavity
  11. From what space is a thoracocenthesis removing fluid
    Costodiaphragmatic recess
  12. Where, and how is a needle inserted for a thoracocentesis
    9th intercostal space, midaxillary line, pointing upward
  13. Where does one listen for the apex of the lungs
    Superior to middle third of the clavicle
  14. Where does one listen for the superior lobe of the lung
    Second intercostal space
  15. The middle of the right lung is best heard where
    Fourth intercostal space on the right side
  16. The inferior lung can be heard best where
    6-7 intercostal space
  17. Normally, how many bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta
    Two left and one right
  18. Bronchial arteries supply nutrition to what structures
    • Root of lung
    • Supporting tissue of lung
    • Visceral pleura
  19. Pulmonary embolism
    Obstruction of pulmonary artery or its branches by a blood clot, fat lobule, or air bubble
  20. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can result from
    A large embolus blocking the pulmonary artery or one of its major branches
  21. Veins from the visceral pleura drain where
    Pulmonary veins
  22. Bronchial veins drain
    Only part of the blood supplied by the bronchial arteries, the remainder is drained by the pulmonary vein
  23. Where does the right bronchial vein drain
    Azygos vein
  24. Where does the left bronchial vein drain
    Accessory hemiazygos vein or the left superior intercostal vein
  25. Where is the subplueral (superficial) lymphatic plexus located
    Deep to the visceral pleura
  26. Drainage of the visceral pleura lymph happens where
    Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes
  27. Where is the deep lymphatic plexus located in the lungs
    Submucosa of the bronchi it follows the bronchi arteries and veins to the hilum
  28. Where does the connective tissue surrounding the bronchi drain
    Pulmonary lymph nodes
  29. Parasympathetic innervation to the lungs has what functions
    • Motor function to smooth muscles in Bronchial tree (constriction)
    • Inhibitory function to pulmonary vessels (dilation)
    • Secretory function to the gland of the bronchial tree
  30. Where does the parasympathetic innervation to the lungs come from
    Cell bodies in the vagus pulmonary plexus
  31. Where does the sympathetic innervation to the lungs come from
    Cell bodies in the paravertebral ganglia
  32. What are the functions of the sympathetic nervous system to the lungs
    • Inhibitory to the bronchial muscle (dilator)
    • Motor to pulmonary vessels (constrictor)
    • Inhibitory to the alveolar glands of the bronchial tree
  33. What impressions are found on the right lung
    • Diaphragm
    • IVC
    • Cardiac
    • SVC
    • Right brachiocephalic Vein
    • Subclavian Art.
    • Trachea
    • Esophagus
    • Azygos vein
  34. What impressioins can be found on the left lung
    • Aortic Arch and Descending Aorta
    • Subclavian Art.
    • Left brachiocephalic vein
    • Cardiac
    • Esophagus
    • Diaphragm
  35. How does the pulmonary artery on the right lung differ from the left
    On the left it is above the brochus, on the right it is anterior
  36. Where are the bronchial veins in respect to the bronchi
    Two are anterior, and one posterior on each side
Card Set
Lung Anatomy S1M3