CFI ICT exam 2

  1. What is the formula for cardiac output?
    Fick Principal

    • Cardia Output = __Oxygen Consumption
    • Arterial - Venou O2 Diff
  2. What chamber do we take O2 stat levels?
    • Right Atrium 75% +/-
    • Right Ventrical 75% +/-
    • Pulmonary Artery 75%
    • Aorta 95% - 100%
  3. Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)
    • -Atria abnormally excited
    • -Causes ventricles to contract at high rate
    • -Low blood pressure and dizziness may occur
    • -Begins abrubtly from few seconds to few hours
  4. Atrial Fibrillation (Afib)
    • -Cells in different areas of atria depolorize, repolorize; no Pwaves
    • -Ventricular contraction - irregular
    • -Not life threatening as long as ventricular rate supports cardiac output
    • -Thrombi is common side effect
  5. Bundle Branch Block (BBB)
    • -Can occur in right or left purkinje fibers as a result of MI
    • -Verntricular deporalization less synchronous
    • -Wideneing of QRS complex
  6. Ventricular Tachycardia
    • -Pulse orginate from ecotpic focus
    • -Ventricle driven at high rate diastolic filling time limited
    • -Can be life threatning
    • -Often precedes Vfib
  7. Prolonged Q-T Intervals
    • -Prolonged refractory period
    • -Maybe caused by genetic cardiac excitablity mutations, electrolyte disturbances, pharmaclogoical agents
    • -Vulnerable to Torsades De Pointes
  8. Aortic Stenosis
    • Narrow opening
    • -Resistance flow is increased
    • -Increase ventricular pressure required to eject blood
    • -Intraventricular pressure increases to high levels at systole
    • -Aortic pressure rides more slowly than normal
  9. Mitral Stenosis
    • -Narrow valve opening
    • -Increases pressure gradients LA to LV
    • -Resistance to flow causes high LA pressure to left atrial enlargments
    • -Elevated left atrial pressures are reflected back to pulmonary bed, cause pulmonary congestions, SOB, Pulmonary HTN
  10. Aortice Insufficiency
    • (AO Regurgitation)
    • -Cusps (leaflets) do not seal properly
    • -AO pressure falls fast and further than normal
    • -Causes a low diastolic pressure
  11. Mitral Insufficiency
    • (Mitral Regurgitation)
    • -Leaflets to not seal properly
    • -Part of left ventrical volume to LA during Systole
    • -Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is common cause
  12. Homeostasis
    balance in the human body system and primary role of cardiovascular system
  13. Pulmonary circulation
    circulation of the deoygenated blood comprised of the right heart system & the lungs
  14. System circulation
    composed of left heart system and sytemic organs (except gas exchange of lungs)
  15. Plasma
    responsible for the continual process of supplying fresh nutrients and waste disposal
  16. Action Potential
    a rapid voltage change triggered by contraction that occures in cell membrane (electromechanical change)
  17. Chronotrope
    Increase or decrease of heart rate and impacted by concentraion of Ca(+)
  18. Inotrope
    force of contraction
  19. Dromotrope
    Conduction speed (related to AV node)
  20. Preload
    end diastolic ventricular pressure and amount of blood filling (EDV and EDP)
  21. Afterload
    systemic atrial pressure; blood that heart pumps against
  22. Parasympathetic
    decrease heart rate; releases ACH; stimulation of vagus nerve
  23. Sympathetic
    increases heart rate; influences all portions of the heart; release NE on myocytes
  24. Viscosity
    Thickness of fluid
  25. Stenosis
    A narrowing or stricture of vessel/valve
  26. Insufficiency
    Regurgitation; Leaflets do not seal
  27. Pulmonary capillary Wedge (PCWP)
    Pressure from balloon wedged into pulmonary artery back flow is recorded and should be equal to left atrial pressure
  28. Beta Blockers
    Block action of Epinepherine at all beta receptors to decrease heart rate and dilate blood vessels
  29. ACE Inhibitors
    Drugs that block angiotensin I and II from converting; results in vasodilation and decrease BP
  30. ARB
    Block angigtensin II from binding to and activating receptors on the smooth muscle of the blood vessel; Results in Vasodilation and decrease in BP
Card Set
CFI ICT exam 2
ICT exam 2