LING 122 Midterm (2 of 2)Short Answers

  1. What does our linguistic knowledge include?
    • Linguistic knowledge includes:
    • Phonology:
    • Phonetics- investigating the physical properties
    • of sounds in languages
    • Also is the ways in which speech sounds form
    • systems and patterns
    • Phono knowledge permits speaker to produce sounds that form meaningful utterance
    • I.e. English consonants: ‘ng’ sound is not allowed at initial position, but only at a final position.

    • Morphology- Structure of words, and how they are formed in the language
    • Ex. Unimaginably.

    Syntax- Knowing how to put words together grammatically in sentences.

    • Pragmatics- use the language in a socially
    • acceptable manner.
  2. Provide three features of how New Yorkers talk.
    1. Think that it is nice to toss in a relevant comment

    2. Think that it is nice to show interest by asking a question (ask machine like questions).

    3. In a real good conversation, only one person is talking a lot of the time.
  3. Why is it important that the New York dialect be described and anallyzed by a native New Yorker like D. Tannen?
    Conversational habits are not universal. People from different ethnic and social backgrounds have different conversational habits that seem self-evident to them.
  4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of knowing N.Y dialects?
    • Advantages:
    • Identify misconception/ give explanations
    • Find accurate information
    • Be able to explain cultural factors (local knowledge)
    • Collection of natural data

    • Disadvantages:
    • Pre-conceived assumption (bias) not as objective
    • Too familiar
  5. Describe how Wolfman and Schilling-estes expalin "standard, dialect, and vernacular language."
  6. Discuss the disadvantages of having a global language according to David crystal.
    • Cultivation of elite monolingual class
    • unfair benefits to the speakers of the global language
    • linguistic complacency
    • consequences of linguistic death
  7. Define "Intelligibility" and provide examples
    Def: the recogniition of a word or another sentence-level element of an utterance

    • Ex: if one were to hear "anyone lived in a pretty how town," one would probably recognize this as an utterance made up of six english words. One would asked to repeat the utterance to write it as dictation.
    • Volume, clarity and speed of the recitation, as well as presence/absence of outside noise, would affect the results.
  8. Define "comprehensibility" and provide an example.
    • Def: refers to the recognition of a meaning attached to a word or utterance.
    • it includes the hearer's crucial role in recognizing the speaker's intent.

    Ex: when we hear the word "please" we ordinarily understand it to be related to a request or directive, usually polite.

    • 2 ways to check the comprehensibility
    • ask for the utterance to be paraphrased by the listener/reader
    • ask a question about the statement.
  9. Define "interpretability" and give an example.
    Def: refers to the recognition by the hearer/reader of the intent of purpose of an utterance.

    Ex: the perlocutionary effect the speaker/writer is aiming at.
  10. Explain why you agree that the value of English for international communication will be lost
    "English as an international language... wil. succomb to the same fate as Latin."

    • The possibitilty of English branching off by its dialects.
    • Example: Latin branching off to Portugeuse, romaninan, French, etc.
    • - English will branch off to American English, British English, Australian English, etc.

    Fallacious. Europe used the language the wrong way. English speakers can also crack the langauge if not used the same way.
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LING 122 Midterm (2 of 2)Short Answers
Midterm review for LING 122- Short Answers