Chapter 41 (4)

  1. __, an animal's assortment of teeth, is one example of structural variation reflecting diet.
    o The evolutionary adaptation of teeth for processing different kinds of teeth for processing different kinds of food is one of the major reasons mammals have been so successful.
  2. Nonmammalian vertebrates generally have less specialized __, but there are interesting exceptions.
  3. True or FalseLarge, expandable stomachs are common in carnivorous vertebrates, which may go for a long time between meals and must eat as much as they can when they do catch prey.
  4. The length of the vertebrate digestive system is also correlated with diet. __ is more difficult to digest than meat because of its cell walls, so __ and __ have longer alimentary canals.
    • vegetation
    • herbivores
    • omnivores
  5. Some digestive adaptations involve mutualistic __, a mutually beneficial interaction between two species.
    o Much of the chem energy in herbivore diets comes from the __ of plant cell walls, but animals do not produce enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose. Instead many vertebrates house large populations of mutualistic bacteria and protists in fermentation chambers in their alimentary canals. These microorganisms have enzymes that can digest cellulose to simple sugars and other compounds that the animal can absorb. In many cases, the mcroorganisms also use the sugars from digested cellulose to produce a variety of nutrients essential to the animal, like vitamins and amino acids.
    • symbiosis
    • cellulose
  6. an esophageal pouch
  7. the puch where the small arnd large intestices connect
  8. feeding on some of their feces and hten passing the foood through the alimentary canal a second time
  9. The most elaborate adaptations for an herbivorous diet have evolved in the animals called __, which include deer, sheep and cattle.
Card Set
Chapter 41 (4)
AP Bio