What polysaccharide is the gold standard used to measure GFR?
What is normal creatine clearance?
What 4 items are required for the Cockcroft-gault equation?
What 4 items are required for the MDRD-4 equation?
What is normal Blood urea nitrogen levels (BUN)?
How much urea is reabsorbed in a normal patient?
As GFR decreases, how does that affect Urea reabsorption?
Urea reabsorption increases
What is the normal BUN:Cr ratio?
What is the BUN:Cr ration if a patient persists with 1) Acute tubular necrosis and 2) Nephron loss?
What is the BUN:Cr ratio in a patient with 1) Dehydration 2) Blood Loss and 3) obstruction?
***due to low GFR which causes more reabsorption of urea
What is the BUN:Cr ratio in a patient with 1) Skeletal muscle breakdown 2) Liver disease and 3) malnutrition and why?
** Skeletal breakdown = high Cr
** Liver disease and malnutrition = low Urea
What is normal Cr clearance for 1) males and 2) Females?
What type of substance is either less than C
(Creatine clearance) or more than Ccr?
Less = reabsorbed
More = Secreted
How much glucose is reabsorbed in the kidney?
All of it (0 is secreted)
What does C
= 1.0 mean?
GFR marker, neither secreted or reabsorbed, but it is filtered completely
What does Cx/Cinulin < 1.0 mean?
either not filtered or filtered and reabsorbed
What does Cx/Cinulin > 1.0 mean?
Filtered and secreted
Why is PAH important?
Some is filtered and the rest is secreted out of plasma
What is PAH a measure of?
RPF since it is secreted out of the plasma
What percentage of RPF reaches the nephrons?
What is the normal Plasma PAH?