pharm derm

  1. interfere with mitochondrial electron transport. Prophylaxis of plasmodium falciparum
    Hydroxynaphthoquinone - Lipophilic analog of ubiquinone
    Absorption incr w/ fatty meal
  2. Active in liver and blood stages (both prevention and treatment)
    Adverse effects: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and headache
    For malaria prophylaxis, unlike mefloquine, can start taking 2 days before entry to malaria infested area and 1 week after exit.
  3. Toxicity:GI upset, fever, rash, headache, insomnia.
    Prophylaxis for plasmodium falciparum
  4. Prophylactic in Chloroquine-resistant areas. Effective against Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum
  5. Toxicity: GI distress, dizziness, headache.
    Contraindicated in epilepsy and psychiatric disorders
  6. Useful for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae
    Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine
  7. Toxicity: headache, dizziness, GI upset, These drugs may concentrate in melanin-containing structures
    Rare: exfoliative dermatosis, permanent retinal damage with prolonged use, exacerbation of psoriasis
    Chloroquine and hydroxyquine
  8. Eliminates the exoerythrocytic or hepatic forms of parasite
    Adverse effects: Hemolysis (G6PD deficient individuals) Methemoglobinemia in NADH-methemoglobin reductase-deficient individuals
  9. Used in areas w/ multidrug-resistant P falciparum
  10. Antihelminth drugs
    • Benzimidazoles
    • Albendazole
    • Mebendazole
    • Pyrantel Pamoate
    • Praziquantel
  11. Adverse effects: Minimal when used for short-term. Long-term: mild reversible hepatotoxicity
  12. Adverse effects: Not as well absorbed,
    Transient abdominal pain/diarrhea in those with large parasite burden
  13. Antiparasitic drugs
    • Crotamiton
    • Sulfur
    • Permethrin
    • Lindane
    • Malathion
  14. MOA: Organophosphate pesticide.Applied to the hair when dry; 4–6 hours later, the hair is combed to remove nits and lice
  15. reduces sebaceous gland size and inflammation.
    Synthetic retinoid All-cis used to treat SEVERE cystic acne unresponsive to other treatments.
    Adverse Effects: Potential teratogen with a BLACK BOX warning, lipid abnormalities, headache, elevated liver function test, depression (suicide), ulcerative colitis
    Isotretinoin (acutane)
  16. Stops the growth of bacteria
    Clinical use: Acne vulgaris -Rosacea
    Adverse Effects: May cause irritation, redness, dryness (reversible or temporary)
    Azelaic acid
  17. Stimulates mononuclear cells to produce Interferon –α, interleukins 1,-6,-8 & TNF- α due to activating NFkB.
    Treat Skin cancer, genital warts
    Adverse effects: local irritant reactions
  18. Retinoid metabolite with vitamin A activity; Increases epidermal turnover. Has anti-inflammatory actions
    Treats psoriasis
  19. Biological agents
    • Alefacept
    • Efalizumab
    • TNF Inhibitors: Etanercept, 
Infliximab, Adalimumab
  20. Immunosuppressive T-cell modulator that reduces CD2, CD-4 & CD-8 T-cells.
    Given IV or IM once weekly, monitor weekly CD4, STOP if < 250 cells/uL.
    Adverse effects: Increased risk of infection & malignancy
  21. Immunosuppressive, decreases activation, adhesion & migration of T-CELLS.
    SQ injection weekly, monitor platelet count monthly.
    Adverse Effects: Thrombocytopenia
  22. MONOCLONAL antibodies that bind TNF-α receptor
    Weekly by SQ or IV injection
    Adverse Effects: May cause life-threatening sepsis, pneumonia, TB, or lymphoma.
    Infliximab & adalimumab
  23. TNF fusion protein that has epitopes that bind TNF-α
    Weekly by SQ or IV injection
    Adverse Effects: May cause life-threatening sepsis, pneumonia, TB, or lymphoma.
  24. Binds and activates all known retinoid receptors (RAR and RXR); hence regulates the transcription of genes that control proliferation & differentiation in both normal & neoplastic cells.
    Topical treatment for skin lesions in AIDs-related Kaposi’s sarcoma.
    Adverse Effects: Local irritation.
  25. Binds and activates RXRs
    Topically or orally for CUTANEOUS T-cell lymphoma.A
    dverse effects: Contraindicated in pregnancy, avoid becoming pregnant for at least 1 month after discontinuing. Lipid monitoring required.
  26. Histone deacetylase inhibitor
    Administered orally for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in patients recurrent disease (also other treatments have failed).
  27. Adverse Effects: Pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), thrombocytopenia, anemia, GI upset.
    Used for cutaneous T cell lyphoma
  28. Fatty acid portion dissolves in hydrophobic region of cytoplasmic membrane and disrupts membrane integrity.
    Peptide antibiotic, active against Gm (-) organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Enterobacter, & Klebsiella
    Polymixin B
  29. Adverse Effects: Maximum daily topical application to denuded skin or open wounds should not exceed 200 mg to avoid possible neurotoxicity & nephrotoxicity
    Polymixin B
  30. Broad spectrum antimycotic, active against Dermatophytes, Candida & Tinea versicolor
    Topically as cream or lotion. Also used as nail lacquer for mycosis of the fingernails and toenails.
    Adverse effects: minimal
    Ciclopirox Olamine
  31. Selective inhibition of squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme for the synthesis of ergosterol (fungal cell wall).
    Highly active against dermatophytes.
    Adverse effects: Local irritation.
  32. inhibits squalene epoxidase
    Synthetic antifungal, effective against dermatophyte infections.
    Cream, solution, also may use powder or powder aerosol for chronic tinea infections).
    Resistance can occur, should NOT be used alone for infections of palms, soles of feet, or nails.
  33. Inhibits mitotic spindle formation in fungi
    Scalp infections (tinea capitus), & infections of non-hairy skin.
    Oral form effective against dermatophyte infections caused by trichophyton, microsporum, & epidermophyton
  34. Adverse effects: Headache, N/V, & photosensitivity.
    Derived from penicillum mold, may cause penicillin cross-sensitivity
    Hepatotoxic, monitor liver function before & after therapy.
    Ultramicronized produce plasma levels similar to the micronized form at HALF the dose. Also fatty foods increase the absorption of griseofulvin.
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pharm derm
pharm derm