1. The mental process that enables us to acquire, retain, and retrieve information
  2. Memory involves three process
    • 1. encoding - acquire info
    • 2. storage - retain info in memory
    • 3. retrieval - recover stored info from ltm
  3. three stages of memory
    • sensory - shortest time 2-3 sec
    • short term - varies over time
    • long term - no limit maybe lifetime
  4. registers a great deal of info from the environment and holds it for a very brief period of time 2-3 sec or less. you quickly select which bits of info to pay attention to and discard the rest
    sensory memory
  5. what you are consciously aware of. maybe what you are working on. you may pull info from senory memory or even long term memory. some of this short term memory may be passed into long term mem some is discarded.
    short term memory
  6. stores pontentially unlimited amount of info for up to a lifetime
    long term memory
  7. the mental or verbal repetition of info in order to maintain it beyond the ususal 20 second duration of short term memory
    if not rehearsed it will be lost
    (phone numbers)
    maintenance rehearsal
  8. rehearsal that involves focusing on meaning of information to help encod and transfer into LTM.
    elaborated rehearsal
  9. how to perform different skills, operations, and actions. may not be sure exactly when you learned it; may not be able to explain how to do it; almost unconcious or automatic
    (motor skills; action)
    procedural memory (long term memory)
  10. memory of specific events(events you have experienced)
    episodic memory
  11. memory of facts, names, definitions, concepts, ideas ( general facts ; knowledge)
    semantic memory (LTM)
  12. memory with(concious) awareness - also know as declarative memory - you can declare the memory
    explicit memory
  13. memory without(unconcios) awareness nondeclarative memory
    memory without concious recall
  14. organizations in long term memory
    • clustering - grouping info together
    • semantic network model- memory triggers
  15. process of accessing information stored in LTM
  16. prompt or hint that helps trigger recall of stored memories
    retrieval cues
  17. failure to recall info from LTM due to inadequate or missing cues

    (common example Tip of the tongue)
    retrieval code failure
  18. infants do not remember until age 3
    infantile amensia
  19. tendancy to have the (beginning and end)1st and last items in a series of a memory not the middle
    serial postition effect
  20. whatever condition you were in when you learned or experienced the information it stores it in ( murder,engagement, pregnacy, birth of a child, death, car accident, something tragic,or great experience)
    encoding specificity principle
  21. Types of retrieval
    • * free recall (essay test)
    • * Cued recall (short answer fill in blank
    • * Recognition (multiple choice)
  22. the recall of very specific images or details surrounding a vivid rare or significant personal event; details may or may not be accurate

    they are more vivid but not any more accurate.
    flashbulb memory
  23. inability to recall information that was previously available.
  24. identified basic patterns of forgetting: rapid loss of info then stable memories of the remaining info
    hermann ebbighaus
  25. 1.encoding failure
    2.retrieval cue failure
    3.decay theory
    4.retroactive interference and procactive
    5.suppression and repression
    these are factors contributing to forgetting
  26. the inability to recall specific info becasue of insufficent encoding of info for storage in LTM

    it never gets stored in the first place, due to absent mindedness (not paying attention) or interference
    encoding failure
  27. forgetting to remember something in the future - you didnt forget "what" you forgot "when" the retreival cue wasnt there or it failed
    prospective memory
  28. the gradual fading of memories over time. evidence doesnt always support this theory
    decay theory
  29. motivated forgetting that occurs unconsciously; a memory that is blocked and unavailable to conscoius
  30. motivated forgetting that is consciously; a deliberate attempt to not think about and remember specific info
  31. severe memory loss
  32. loss of memory especially for episodic info backward acting amnesia
    retrograde amnesia
  33. loss of memory caused by the inability to store new memories; forward acting amnesia
    anterograde amnesia
  34. 1. minimize preconception & biases while evaluating evidence
    2. think ahead - determine the conclusion that can reasonably be down from the evidence
    3. considering alternative explanations for research finding or others phenomena
    critical thinking
Card Set
Chapter 6 & 7 Memory Thinking Language Intellegence