The Lonely Crowd
- Book written by David Riesman that criticized the people of the 50s who
- no longer made decisions based on morals, ethics and values; they were
- allowing society to tell them what is right and wrong.
J. D. Sallinger
- wrote in the Catcher in the Rye of a prep school student, Holden
- Caulfield who was unable to find any are of society—school, family,
- friends, city - in which he could feel secure or committed.
The Affluent Society
- John Kenneth Galbraith's novel about America's post-war prosperity as a
- new phenomenon. Economy of scarcity --> economy of abundance.
a social group in which it is acceptable to squander usable materials and products
The generation of writers who rebelled against American Culture for its conformity, blind faith in technology, and materialism.
was the author of the best-selling book On the Road, which epitomized the Beat Generation of the late 1940s and early 1950s.
- was a two-time Oscar-nominated American film actor. Dean's status as a
- cultural icon is best embodied in the title of his most celebrated film,
- Rebel Without a Cause
- refers to music by Black artists - difficult for them to get recordings
- or airplay on radio simply because of racial prejudice and fear
- secret payments made by record promoters to disk jockeys or station
- owners to get their songs on the air, these payola payments produced a
- sensational series of scandals when they were exposed in the late 50's.
- Author who wrote The Other American. He alerted those in the mainstream
- to what he saw in the run-down and hidden communities of the country.
The Other America
book by michael harrington about poor americans. 1/5 living below poverty line
- The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His
- actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
- American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court
- of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of
- minorities and the poor.
White Citizens' Councils
- stated that the south would not be integrated. it imposed economical and
- political pressure against those who favorered compliance with the
- supreme courts decision.
Governor Orval Faubus
didn't allow de-segregation to occur in Arkansas, of AK; sent NG to surround school to keep out black students
Little Rock Nine
- In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court
- order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school
- with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas
- National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next
- day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white
- mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate
- the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's
- patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to
- send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full
- school year.
- The manifesto was a document written by legislators opposed to
- integration. Most of the signatures came from Southern Democrats,
- showing that they would stand in the way of integration, leading to
- another split/shift in the Democratic Party.
- United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a
- bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national
- civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Montgomery, Alabama Bus Boycott
- the first organized movement by african americans to fight segregation;
- intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public
- transit system. Many historically significant figures of the civil
- rights movement were involved in the boycott
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
- An African-American Civil Right's Activist who was peaceful. He was
- awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his cause. He was assasinated in 1968
- in Tennesee, nobel peace prize for nonviolent leadership. youngest man
- in history to recieve that award, civil rights activist who delivered
- the famous "I Have a Dream" speech and also won the Nobel Peace Prize
Civil Rights Act of 1957
- Primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation
- enacted by Republicans in the United States since Reconstruction.
SCLC: Southern Christian Leadership Conference
- An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against
- segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence
- and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
Refer to type of philosophy he had. Wasn't extremely liberal or conservative
- Appropriating $25 billion for the construction of interstate highways
- over a 20-year period, it was the largest public works project in
- American history to that point.
John Foster Dulles
- United States diplomat who (as Secretary of State) pursued a policy of
- opposition to the USSR by providing aid to American allies (1888-1959)
- The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the
- 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in
- response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)
M. A. D.
- Mutually Assured Destruction
- a policy created during the 1950s by the Soviets and the US that if the
- Soviets (or US) launched missiles at the US and we knew then we would
- fire everything we had and then the Soviets would do the same resulting
- in the destruction of both countries.
Ho Chi Minh
- Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II
- and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
Dien Bien Phu
the French military base fell after a 56-day siege by Vietnam troops
War peace plan
line of latitude that separated North and South Vietnam
SEATO: Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
- A regional defense pact pulled together by Dulles to prevent the "fall"
- to communism of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia., SEATO; A regional
- defense pact pulled together by Dulles to prevent the "fall" to
- communism of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
Ngo Dinh Diem
- South Vietnamese president that was catholic and strongly opposed
- communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom
a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.
The Ugly American 1958
how JFK based his foreign policy. American shouldn't think that they own the place.
Prime Minister of Iran before overthrown in CIA coup, accused of treason, and convicted as a Communist
- He was a pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led
- to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Gamal Abdul Nasser
dictator in Egypt who wants US to help build Aswan Dam while he's also buying weapons from Soviets; nationalizes Suez Canal
- July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal,
- Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced
- British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power
policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country
Radio Free Europe
broadcasts supporting democratic principles and ideals transmitted to people living behind the Iron Curtain
Voice of America
- 1948; This government agency was created to make radio (and later TV)
- broadcasts of news and entertainment into foreign countries, especially
- into those controlled by communists.
- *Hungary against Russia *Gain independence from Russia *A new Hungarian
- government in 1956 announced its withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact
- was a famous discussion between Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev. It
- signaled that the U.S acknowledged their setback in technology since
- Nixon focused on technological luxuries.
- The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the
- Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first,
- but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the
- largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially.
- The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a
- great embarrassment for the United States.
- Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it
- in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined
- lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted
- with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
- The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised
- to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in
- education, health care, and civil rights.
a civilian organization sponsored by the United States government
Senator Barry Goldwater
- Election of 1964: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Barry Goldwater, Republican
- Senator from Arizona who ran for president in 1964 but lost to Johnson.
Lyndon B. Johnson
- President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program
- the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures,
- including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to
Medicare / Medicaid 1965
a federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older / for the poor
a preschool program for children from low-income families that also provides healthcare, nutrition services, and social services
Elementary and Secondary Education Act 1965
- The Act is an extensive statute which funds primary and secondary
- education. This allowed the government to help those who cannot achieve a
- good education.
VISTA: Volunteers in Service to America
one of the several volunteer service organizations sponsored by the federal government
Economic Opportunity Act
created job corps, which trained 16-21 years olds in work skills
War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
Immigration & Nationality Act 1965
- This law made it easier for entire families to migrate and established
- "special categories" for political refugees. This act increased the
- amount of immigration.
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi (born in 1933)
Eugene "Bull" Connor
- police commissioner of Birmingham AL, arrested 2200 in 5 weeks, police
- commissioner personally supervised a brutal effort to break up the
- peaceful marches Martin Luther King Jr. led, arresting hundreds of
- demonstrators and using attack dogs, tear gas, electric cattle prods,
- and fire hoses, all in view of TV cameras.
Governor George Wallace
- segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever of alabama,
- He ran on saying he didn't want any integration, he passed a law that
- said Protests are illegal
March on Washington 1963
- In August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in
- Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill. The
- high point came when MLK Jr., gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to more
- than 200,000 marchers in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
- a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to
- register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi,
- which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters. The
- project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a
- coalition of four established civil rights organizations: the National
- Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress
- of Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
- (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), with
- SNCC playing the lead role.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
- This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers
- illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing
- civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Voting Rights Act 1965
- 1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and
- allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that
- minorities could vote
- 1964 riots which started in an African-American ghetoo of Los Angeles
- and left 30 dead and 1,000 wounded. Riots lasted a week, and spurred
- hundreds more around the country.
created in July, 1967 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States
De Jure Segregation
racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.
De Facto Segregation
racial segregation that occurs in schools, not as a result of the law, but as a result of patterns of residential settlement
Nation of Islam (Black Muslims)
a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans
- 1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage;
- converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims'
- most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a
- lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist
- impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
- the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to
- achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own
head of the SNCC making a separatist philosophy of black power as the official objective of the organization
- militant founder/leader of the Black Panthers, organized the militant
- group the Black Panthers & Hugh Newton wanted black rights through
- A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for
- violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the
- black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
- this law banned discrimination in housing, the segregation of education,
- transprotation, and employment, it helped African Americans gain their
- full votin rights.