1. anatomy
    • "to cut up"
    • essentially the study of the structures (the what) of the body
  2. Physiology
    • "study of nature"
    • essentially the study of the functions (the how) of the body
  3. the chemical (or molecular) level
    atoms, the smallest stable units of matter, can combine to form molecules with complex shapes
  4. the cellular level
    the smallest living units
  5. the tissue level
    a tissue is a group of cells working together to perform one or more specific functions
  6. the organ level
    organs consist of two or more tissues working in combination to perform several functions
  7. the organ system level
    organs interact in organ systems
  8. the organism level
    an organism - in this case, a human - is the highest level of organization. all organ systems of the body must work together to maintain the life and health of the organism
  9. homeostasis
    • • Literally means “unchanging standing”
    • • = the body’s maintenance of a relatively constant (within limits) internal environment despite changes in the internal or external environment
    • – The goal is to achieve a state of dynamic equilibrium (balance) of the body’s internal conditions
    • • E.g. blood pressure, body temperature, hormone levels, etc., etc., etc.....
    • • Most diseases are homeostatic imbalances (e.g. diabetes = insulin and blood glucose imbalances)
  10. autoregulation, or intrinsic regulation
    controlthat is done locally by the affected cell, tissue, organ, or organ system (e.g. the local vasodilation and vasoconstriction that occurs due to changes in local tissue oxygen levels)
  11. extrinsic regulation
    controlthatisdonebythe nervous and/or endocrine systems (e.g. the whole body’s response to beginning exercise)
  12. nervous system responses
    rapid, fast, usually a few seconds
  13. endocrine responses
    releases chemical messengers that could take days or weeks
  14. receptor
    sensor that is sensitive to a particular environmental change or stimulus, internally or externally
  15. control center
    receives and processes the info supplied by the receptor, then sends out commands
  16. effector
    cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center whose activity either opposes or enhances the stimulus
  17. negative feedback w/ example
    a response to a stimulus that negates the stimulus ex. body heat lost to the skin sweating
  18. positive feedback w/ example
    an initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the change in the original condition, rather than opposing it ex. blood clotting
  19. abdominopelvic quadrants
  20. abdominopelvic regions
    tic tac toe like with the navel in the center
  21. transverse plane
    divides the body into superior and inferior sections
  22. frontal plane (coronal)
    divides the body into anterior and posterior sections
  23. sagittal plane (mid and para)
    divides the body into left and right sections, midsaggital is right down the middle, parasagittal is parallel to midsaggital
  24. ventral body cavity (coelom)
    front body cavity that holds nearly every internal organ
  25. thoracic cavity
    surrounded by chest wall and diaphragm, subdivided into right pleural cavity (surrounds right lung), mediastinum (contains the trachea, esophagus, and major vessels), left pleural cavity (surrounds left lung), pericardial cavity (surrounds heart)
  26. abdominopelvic cavity
    contains peritoneal cavity, which includes: abdominal cavity (many digestive glands and organs), pelvic cavity (urinary bladder, reproductive organs, last portion of digestive tract)
  27. diaphragm
    a flat muscular sheet, divides the ventral body cavity into a superior thoracic cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity
  28. visceral layer
    serous membrane layer that covers partial or completley the internal organs to allow for movement and size change
  29. parietal layer
    serous membrane layer that opposes the visceral layer and covers the internal cavities
  30. pericardial cavity
    a small chamber that surrounds the heart (relationship btw the heart and the pericardial cavity is that of a fist pushing into a balloon
  31. retroperitoneal
    organs between the peritoneal lining, such as kidneys and pancreas
Card Set
A&P ch1