Chapter 41 (1)

  1. __: food being taken in, taken apart, and taken up
  2. __ dine mainly on plants and algae. __ mostly eat other animals. __ don't in fact eat everything, but they do regularly ocnsume animals as well as plants as algae.
    • herbivors
    • carnivores
    • omnivores
  3. Most animals are __. eatimg foods outside their standard diet when their usual foods aren't available.
    opportunistic feeders
  4. The activities of cells, tisseus, organs, and whole animals depend on sources of __ in the diet. THis energy, after being converted to __, powers processes ranging from DNA rep and cell division to vision and flight. To meet the continuous requirement for __, animals ingest and digest nutrients, like __, __ and __ for use in cell resp and energy storage.
    • chem energy
    • ATP x2
    • proteins
    • lipids
    • carbs
  5. In addition to providing fuel for ATP production, what must an animal's diet supply?
    o To build the complex molecules it needs to grow, maintain itself and reproduce, an animal must obtain two types of organic precursors from its food. Animals neeed a source of __ and a source of __. Starting with these materials, animals can construct a great variety of organic molecules.
    • the raw materials needed for biosynthesis.
    • organic carbon (sugars)
    • organic nitrogen (amino acids from digestion of proteins)
  6. The materials that na animal's cells require but cannot synthesize are called __. Obtained from dietary sources, these nutrients include both minerals and preassembled organic molecules. SOme nutrients are essential for all animals, whereas others are needed only by certain species. For instance, __ is an essential nutrient for humans and other primates, pigs, and some birds and snakes, but not for most animals.
    • essential nutrinets
    • absorbic acid (vitamin C)
  7. Overall, an adequate diet thus satisfies three nutritional needs: What are they?
    chemi energy for cell procesesses,

    organic building blocks for cabrs

    other macromolecuels and essential nutrients
  8. There are four classes of essential nutrients: What are they?
    • essential:
    • - amino acids
    • - fatty acids
    • - vitamins
    • - minerals
  9. Animals require __ amino acids to make proteins. The majority of animal species can synthesize about half of these amino acids, as long as their diet consists of __. The remaining amino acids must be obtained from food in prefabricated form and are therefore called __. Most animals reuqire __ amino acids in their diet. (Infants need a __)
    • 20
    • organic nitrogen
    • essential amino acids
    • 8
    • ninth (histidine)
  10. A diet that provides insufficient amts of one or more __ causes protein deficiency, the most common type of __ among humans.
    • essential amino acids
    • malnutrition
  11. The proteins in animal products such as meat,e ggs and cheese are __, which means they provide all the __ in their proper proportions. In contrast, most plant proteins are __, being deficient in one or more __.
    • complete
    • essential amino acids
    • incomplete
    • essential amino acids
  12. To prevent protein deficiency, what must vegetarians do?
    include combos of plant products that provide all essential amino acids
  13. T or FSome animals have adaptations that help them through periods when their bodies demand extraordinary amts of protein.
  14. Animals can synthesize most, but not all, of the fatty acids they need. The __, the ones they cannot make are certain fatty acids that are unsaturated.
    essential fatty acids
  15. __ ar organic molecules with diverse functions that are required int he diet in very small amounts. For humans, __ essential vitamins have been identified.
    • vitamins
    • 13
  16. Vitamins are classified as _ or __.
    o The __ are B complex, which generally function as coenzymes, and Vit C, which is required to produce connective tissue.
    o Amont he __ are vit A, which is incorporated into visual pigents of the eye, and vit K, which functions in blood clotting. Also, Vit D aids in calcium absorption and bone formation.
    water soluble and fat soluble (x2)
  17. Moderate overdoses of __ are probably harmless because escesses of these vitamins are excreted in urine. However, excesses of __ are deposited in body fat, so overconsumption may result in accumulating toxic levels of tehse compounds.
    • water soluble vitamines
    • fat soluble vitamins
  18. Dietary __ are inorganic nutrinet,s like zince and pottasium that are usually required in small amounts, from less than 1 mg- 2500 mg. __ requirements vary among animal species.
  19. many minerals are __ built into the structure of enzymes; magnesium for ex is present in enzyems that split ATP. Vertebrates need __ to make throid hormones, which regulate metabolic rate. __, __, __ are important in the functinoing of nerves and in maintaining osmotic balance between cells and the surrounding body fluid.
    • cofactors
    • iodine
    • sodium
    • potassium
    • chloride ions
  20. Humans eand etc reequire relatively large quntities of __ and __ for bilidng and maintaining bone. In addition, __ is necessary for functioning of nerves and muscles, ad __ is an ingredient of ATP and nucleic acids. __ is a component of the cytochromes that function in cell resp.
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
    • iron
  21. Ingesting large amounts of some __ can upset homeostatic balance and cause toxic side effects.
  22. Diets that fail to meet basic needs can lead to either __ or __.
    o __ is the result of a diet that consistenly supplies less chemical energy than the body requires.
    o __ is the long-term absence fromt eh diet of one or more essential nutrients. Both ahve negative impacts on health and survival.
    • under and malnourishment
    • undernourishment
    • malnourishment
  23. When a n animal is __, aseries of events unfold: the body uses up stored fat and carbs; the body begins braking down its own proteins for fuel; muscles begin to decrease in size; and the brain may become protein deficient. If energy intake remains lesss than energy expenditures, the animal will eventually die. Even if a seriously __ animal survives, some damage may be irreversible
  24. The poteintial effects of __ include deformities, disease and even death.
  25. True or False:
    Determining the ideal diet for the human pop is an important but difficult problem for scientists. As objects of study, people present many challenges. Unlike lab animals, humans are genetically diverse. They also live in settings far more varied than the stable and uniform environment that scientists use to facilitate comparisons in lab experiments. Ethical concerns present an additional barrier.
  26. True or False:
    The methods used to study human nutrition have changed dramatically over time. To avoid harming others, several of the researchers who discovered vitamins a century ago used themselves as subject animals. Today, an important approach is the tudy of genetic defects that disrupt food uptake, storage or use.
  27. many insights into human nutrition have come from __, the study of human health and diseas eat the pop level. By tracking the causes and distribution of a disease among many individuals, __ can identify potential nutritional strategies for preventing and controlling diseases and disorders.
    • epidemiology
    • epidemiologists
  28. __ occur when tissue fails to enclose the developing braina n d spinal cord.
    neural tube defects
Card Set
Chapter 41 (1)
AP Bio