What are the four hallmarks of acute inflammation?
2) Increased permeability
3) Increased adhesion
What are the five signs of inflammation? (Prep-L)
Loss of function
What are three principal cytokines released in response to inflammation?
IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha
What do the 3 principal cytokines produce? Result?
Acute phase proteins
: CRP, Haptoglobin, Fibrinogen
Result = RBC Sedimentation
Which is the strongest Acute phase protein?
What is the function of CRP?
2) activate complement
3) Cytokine release from phagocytes
What are the two cytokines released from Macrophages and their functions?
: NK cell activation
: WBC chemoattractant
Movement of WBC through capillaries to fight infections (caused by vasodilation, permeability and adhesion)
What are two CAMs (Adhesion molecules)? Where?
Integrins on WBC
Selectins on endothelial cells
What cytokines upregulate the production of E and P selections?
TNF-alpha and IL-1
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
What is LAD1?
no IL-18 = no Beta-2 integrins
What is LAD2?
No IL-15 (sialyl Lewis) = no E and P selectin ligand
During Extravasation, what is on the WBC that is active and causes it to bind to the endothelium?
Integrins and Selectin ligands
What is a clinical documentation of LAD?
High WBC count in blood b/c they can't extravasate and leave the capillaries