What was the significance fo the election of 1952?
In South – 1st time since 1850s, south was moving towards a 2 party sys.
In New Deal coalition – Ike made supporters among ethnic/religious minorities who had long been stereotyped w/ dem party.
Except for presidency, Democrats fared well in 1952 – gained in senate and later elections.
endurance of new deal programs
Extended the coverage of the Social Security Act - covered white-collar pros, domestic and clerical workers, farmers, members of armed forces.
Farm-related programs – reduced farm-price subsidies and tax restrictions.
Public works: St. Lawrence Seaway
opened the great lakes to ships by way of locks.
public works: Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956
gave the fed gov permission to pay 90% of cost of building a nat’l network of interstate highways for commerce/defense/convenience of citizens.
The Korean peace talks
Continuing deadlock in Korea peace talks – early 1953 was Eisenhower’s most pressing issue.
Aerial bombardment and "secret" threats used to obtain agreement – result: negotiations moved quickly to armistice.
The end of McCarthyism
Attack on the United States Army
- Attack on the United States Army – said the US army was “soft on communism”
- Result – Televised hearings led to McCarthy's downfall
Eisenhower's concern for internal security
allowed firing of "security risk" government workers, replaced Truman’s policy of disloyalty w/ security risk.
The Warren Court and the Red Scare
became an important force for pol and social change through the 60s. SC upheld individual rights and got rid of the Smith act.
John Foster Dulles and foreign policy
Liberation – ams should try to free e euro from soviets, wasn’t much dif from containment
"Massive retaliation" – effort to get more bang for his buck
"Brinksmanship" – playing on fears of nuclear war. Push them to the very edge.
Independence for British colonies – India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Burma, Malay States.
Indonesian independence – hindered by Fr desire to regain territories from jap.
Ho Chi Minh's efforts for Indochinese independence – he declared independence for Vietnam in 1945.
First Indochina War
- Conflict between Ho and Bao Dai – Ho challenged Fr efforts to restore their colonial regime. China recognized Viet Minh gov in Hanoi, Us and br recognized Bao Dai.
- Increased American aid for French and Bao Dai
- French defeat at Dien Bien Phu – on may 7, 1954. Fr continued to suffer defeats for 6 weeks.
The Geneva Accords
- Proposed to unify Vietnam (17th //) after elections in 1956, Fr remain s, Viet Minh n.
- American response – the establishment of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), incase of attack, the others would act according to constitutional practices.
U.S. backing for South Vietnam – stop the spread of communism!
Rise of Ngo Dinh Diem – Installed as Vietnamese premier by the French
- Diem's corrupt and oppressive regime – no land distribution and allowing widespread corruption.
- Refused to sanction elections in 1956 – he ousted Bao Dai and declared himself president.
- Vietcong begin attacks on Diem regime – the nat’l liberation front tried to combat them.
- Before the Manila conference – Chinese began artillery shelling of Quemoy and Matsu
- Navy "leaked" word – that the U.S. was considering destroying Red Chinese military strength
- Attacks ceased – Chou En-lai declared the ppls repub of china was ready to discuss Taiwan strait issue directly w/ US. began meetings in Geneva.
- Egyptian government ordered the British out of Egypt – Nassar’s nat’list regieme and a treaty pressed br out.
- Israel, France, and Britain began military attacks on Egypt – wanted to root out Arab guerillas, but sided w/ br to bomb Egypt air barrier.
- America sided with Nassar – to champion Arab nat’l sm against imperialist aggression
Communist repression in Hungary
- Hungary withdrew from the Warsaw Pact – they withdrew their forces from Budapest, and withdrew from the pact.
- Result – Rus troops forced Hungary back into the Communist fold and executed Imre Nagy
Russia launched Sputnik I (October 1957) – 1st satellite
American responses – Americans suddenly noted apparent "missile gap, " enlarged defense spending, NASA's creation, National Defense Education Act of 1958 – authorized fed grants for student loans and training in math, science, languages.
The Eisenhower Doctrine
extended econ and mil aid to ME and use of armed forces to stop comm.
effects of events In East Asia
Renewed confrontation between Chinese Communists and Nationalists
Eisenhower's ambiguous stance over civil rights
preferred state/local over fed action. Believed laws couldn’t change racial attitudes.
The Brown decision (1954)
Eisenhower's reluctance – refused to enforce it.
Token integration – citizens councils rebelled and attacked blacks.
Massive resistance – southern manifesto – denounce the sc’s brown decision.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference formed
to keep alive and spread civil rights mvmt beyond AL.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
Civil Rights Act of 1960
1957 established civil rights commission and civil rights division in the justice dept to help w/ rights to vote.
1960 provided for fed’l court references to register af ams to vote in districts where they were discriminated against.
What? – Arkansas Gov. Orval Faubus prevented black students from registering for high school
Ike’s reaction – Eisenhower ordered military protection for students, Faubus closed the high schools in Little Rock
Result – By 1960 massive resistance confined to Deep South
Eisenhower's achievements and shortfalls
Alaska, Hawaii, econ slump, ↓tax revenue, ↑fed debt, u2 spy plane, civil rights, defense policy.