1. William Hardy
    Discovered that heart is a pumping organ machine
  2. Heart
    • Pumps blood, has vessels, organ that pumps 60-80 per min
    • Cardiac muscle
  3. Apex
    • Sitson Diaphragm-tapers to left
    • Strongest part of heart, pumps most blood to body with strongest muscle
  4. PMI-Point of Maximum Intensity
    The Apex
  5. Torstion
    Twisted-heart of right side
  6. Pericardium
    Surronds heart, protection
  7. Myocardium
    Heart muscle-inner most layer of heart carivty
  8. Fibrous Pericardium
    Outer most layer of heart protection
  9. Serous Pericardium of heart
    Double layer that curves and has fluid between two layers
  10. Pericardial cavity
    Fluid between serous and visceral layers
  11. Visceral layer
    Tightly attached to heart
  12. Endocardium
    Inner most layer
  13. Pericardial fluid
    Helps reduce friction of heart on outside tissue
  14. Pericardris
    • No fluid in pericardial cavity-FRICTION RUB
    • Caused by infection or compression
  15. Endocardium
    Made of endothelial cells-inner most layer
  16. Tamponate
    • To much fluid in pericardial cavity-puts to much pressure on heart
    • "Heart Plug"
  17. Chambers of heart
    • 2-Atria-on top
    • 2-Ventricals-bottom
    • Bundels of spiral and circular cardiac muscle
  18. Corinary Circulation
    Heart circulation
  19. Arteries
    Pump RED blood-oxygenated blood
  20. Veins
    Pump BLUE blood-deoxygenated blood
  21. Aorta
    Artery at top of heart
  22. Auricle
    Fold or flap of extra space to increase atria space
  23. Vena cave
    Vein that leads to heart with deoxygenated blood
  24. Apex
    Left side of heart has strongest muscle and pumps blood to whole body
  25. Pectinate muscle
    Only right side of atrium that pitrudes into atrium
  26. Trabeculae carneae
    Ridges inside the ventricle
  27. Papillary muscle
    Finger like muscles connecting trabeculae corneae to ventricle with string like fibers
  28. Valves
    Seperate chamber
  29. Tricuspid valve
    Door that seperates the atrim and the ventricle of the RIGHT side
  30. Bicuspid or Mitral valve
    Seperates the atrium and the ventricle of the LEFT side
  31. Inter-atrial septum
    Between atriums
  32. Inter-vertrial septum
    Between the ventricles
  33. Chordae Tendinea
    • The Heart Strings-string like fiber that hold the papillary muscle to the valves
    • Controls opening and closing of valves
  34. Fossa Ovalis
    • Grove in right atrium
    • Was a hole for fetus closes after birth with growth
    • Anemia if it doesn't close
  35. Receiving side of heart
    Right side-receives deoxygenated blood
  36. Dispencing side of heart
    Left side-send out oxygenated blood
  37. Systemic Circuit
    Goes to all part of body except lungs
  38. Pulmonary Circuit
    Only between heart and lungs
  39. Pulmonary Arteries
    Only carry BLUE blood
  40. Pulmonary Veins
    Only carry RED blood
  41. Left ventricle
    3 times thicker than right-stronger to send out blood
  42. Coronary Circulation
    • Heart blood supply
    • Cardiac muscle cant divide
  43. Thrombus
    Block on a blood vessel-choked chest
  44. Angina
    • Reduced blood
    • Low blood=low oxygen
  45. Miocardial Affort
    • When muscles cant retract
    • Muscle cells die scar tissue forms
    • No oxygen=real heart attach
  46. Valves
    • Doors to chambers of heart
    • 4 total
    • 2 in heart-Tricuspid and Mitral
    • 2 in trunk or vessels of heart
  47. Aortic vavle
    Present in aorta
  48. Pulmonary valve
    Present in pulmonary cavity-only arteries that carry deoxygenated blood
  49. Cusps of valves
    • Cusps push close when blood fills cavity
    • Prevents back flow of blood
  50. Endocarditis
    Inflammation of valves in trunk
  51. Leaky valve
    Valves dont close completely and leak into ventricle
  52. Valve Stenosis
    • Big leak-when calcium deposits on valve and they become stiff and increase load on heart
    • Mitral or Bicuspid most effected
  53. Mermer
    Irregular closing of heart valves
  54. Functional Synctium
    All the muscle cells synconize to beat all as one unit
  55. Intercalated Disc
    Between muscle fibers that carries they rythem of heart beat to next cell to make it beat as one
  56. Action Potenial
    • 1 beat
    • 1 contraction and 1 relaxation of heart muscle
    • 200 milli-seconds
  57. Depolarization
    • When sodium come in from outside into cell which opens calcium channels
    • Sodium starts depolarization calcium finishes it
  58. Repolarization
    • After depolarization the calcium gates close and potassium channels open
    • Calcium starts repolarization and potassium finishes it
  59. Resting membrane potential
    40 milli volts
  60. Hyperpolatization
    • Ready to beat again
    • calcium comes out
  61. Contract
  62. Retract
  63. Auto rhythmic
    once it starts if never stops beating
  64. Heart needs ATP
    • Needs ATP to work
    • Low ATP leads to heart attach
  65. Ischemia
    Low ATP, low blood
  66. Ectopic Focus
    • Bad pacemaker
    • SA node fails and AV node takes over
    • Junctional rhythm not sinus rythme
    • 40 to 60 beats per min
  67. Arrhythmia
    Irregular heart beat-beating before relaxation of last beat
  68. Fibrillation
    • No sequence of beat-heart out of control
    • Erratic
  69. Heart Block
    No AV node-heart has no back up for the SA node so there will be no rhythm
  70. Systole
    Contraction of heart muscle-pumping out blood
  71. Diastole
    Relaxation of heart muscle
  72. Sinus Rhythm
    • Normale heart beat
    • Automatic synched rhythm
  73. SA node
    • Pacemaker cells-specialized cells
    • Start beat or rhythm
  74. AV node
    • Between atrium and ventricle
    • Beat received here from the SA node
  75. Bundle of His
    • Branches that come from atrium and lead to ventricles
    • Carries heart beat signal sent from AV node-sends to ventricle walls
  76. Purkinje fibers
    • Part of bundles of his
    • Found in ventricle walls
  77. Sympathetic Nerve
    Increases heart beat
  78. Parasympathetic Nerve
    Decreases heart beat
  79. Vagal tone
    • Normal beating of heart controled by nervous system
    • Controls the heart beat by nerve-if cut heart rate increases nothing to stop it-to much nerve stimuli and the heart will slow down to much
  80. ECG
    • Electro cardio-gram-electrical activity of the whole heart
    • Detects deflection waves
  81. Atrial depolarization
    • "P" potion of wave
    • Contraction of atria
    • Atria starts beating then whole heart
  82. Ventricular depolarization
    • "QRS" portion of wave
    • Contraction of ventricle
    • Beat travels to ventricles-stronger muscle bigger spike
  83. Ventricle repolarization
    • "T" portion of wave
    • Repolarization of ventricle
  84. Atrial repolarization
    Not shown in graph because it happens so quickly machine cant pick it up
  85. Dicrotic notch
    Notch in the QRS wave caused by the closing of semi lunar valve
  86. Second degree AV block
    2 "P" waves-electrical circuit problem no AV node connection
  87. Lub sound
    AV valves
  88. Dub sound
    Semi lunar valves
  89. Stenosis
    Stiffness of valves
  90. Cardio-output
    Total blood moved per min
  91. Stroke volume
    • Blood sent in 1 beat
    • 1 squeeze of heart muscle=70ml of blood
  92. Heart rate
    # of times heart beats per min
  93. Frank Stonling Law
    Output of the blood from heart is dependent on how efficient the heart muscle can stretch
  94. Brady Cardia
    Slowing down of heart beat
  95. Tacky Cardia
    Speeding up of heart beat
  96. Mesoderm
    • Heart development from middle layer of embryo
    • Day 21 heart starts forming
  97. Foramina oval
    Connects the 2 atria of heart by whole in fetus and infants
  98. Cardoimyoplasty
    Taking of muscle wrapping it around ventricle so beat will be transferred to muscle
  99. LVAD
    Small pump that connects to left ventricle artificial pump
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