1. Motivation
    • The force that moves people to behave, think, and feel the way they do
    • Motivated behavior is energized, directed and sustained
  2. Evolutionary Explanation
    • Instincts innate, biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal across a species
    • Animals tend to "follow their instincts" and react in a predictable manner
  3. Drive Reduction Theory
    • As a drive increases we are motivated to take appropriate action to decrease it and maintain homeostasis
    • Drive aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need
    • Need a deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation
  4. Optimum Arousal Theory
    • Yerkes-Dodson
    • Performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than low or high
    • =Too low can cause you to not take action
    • =Too high can cause anxiety
  5. Hunger
    • Stomach sends messages about nutrient levels to the brain based blood chemistry (Glucose / Insulin / Leptin)
    • Hypothalamus (along with neurons and neurotransmitters) controls hunger
    • =Lateral hypothalamus stimulates eating
    • =Ventromedial hypothalamus restricts eating
  6. Obesity
    • Around 60% of Americans are overweight
    • 1/3 (33%) of Americans are obese
    • Set point the weight you maintain without trying to influence your weight
    • =Based on fat storage cells
    • =Possible genetic component
  7. Sex
    • Urge, reward, relief cycle of motivation
    • Controlled by the hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, limbic system, hormones and the temporal lobes
    • Human sexual response pattern: Excitement / Plateau / Orgasm / Resolution
  8. Self-Determination Theory
    • A theory for motivation that focuses on personal growth
    • Three basic needs: Competence / Relatedness / Autonomy
    • Individualistic and Collectivist cultures both focus on self-determination
  9. Intrinsic Vs. Extrinsic
    • Intrinsic motivation is internally driven
    • Extrinsic motivation is driven by some external force, generally reward or punishment
    • Extrinsic motivation can influence intrinsic motivation in both positive and negative ways
  10. Emotion
    • Feeling (affect) that can involve physiological arousal, conscious experience and behavioral expression
    • Two main theories:
    • =James-Lange emotion results from physiological states which are triggered by the environment
    • =Cannon-Bard emotion and physiological reaction is simultaneous rather than cause & effect
  11. Cognitive Factors of Emotion
    • Two-factor theory of emotion: Physiological arousal / Cognitive labeling
    • Interpret external cues and label the emotion based on the environment and our past experiences
    • =Some emotions are nearly instantaneous while others involve cognitive appraisal and assesment
  12. Sociocultural Factors of Emotion
    • Display rules standards that determine when, where, and how emotions should be expressed
    • =Differ for different cultures
    • =Gender roles
Card Set
Motivation and Emotion