personality psych exam 3

  1. Carl Rogers
    • studied agriculture then history, then religion, then psychology
    • actual vs. ideal self concepts
  2. Abraham Maslow
    • rebelled from parents wishes
    • studied the most mentally healthy adults
    • self acualized personality
    • hierarchy of needs
  3. Seligman
    learned helplessness theory
  4. Humanistic Approach
    • free will and positive side of human nature
    • focused on the most mentally healhty
    • the most mentally healthy are called fully functioning adults
  5. Incongruency and mental health
    • how far apart your actual and ideal self concepts are from each other
    • source of this stems from conditional positive regard
    • there is a relation between incongruency and mental health
  6. unconditional positive regard
    • No matter what you do someone will still you will still be loved and accepted
    • source of congruency
    • having one person giving uncinditional positive regard can be all the different in mental health
  7. conditional positive regard
    • you will only be loved and accepted as long as your behavior is accepted by others
    • source of incongruency
  8. congruency
    how close you're actual image is to your ideal image
  9. self concept
    • People have a way of looking at themselves
    • actual vs ideal self image
  10. acutal self image
    description of how you see yourself now
  11. ideal self image
    description of how you want to see yourself
  12. person-centered therapy
    • The patient is more in chage of therapy
    • the therapist gives unconditional positive regard to the patient
  13. reflection in person centered therapy
    • What the patient says becomes paraphrased by the therapist according to how the therapist understands the statement
    • this shows empathy or understanding and sympathy towards patient
    • gives insight and another perspective as well as clears up misunderstandings
  14. encounter groups
    • famous in the 70's
    • individuals form groups and help ingroup members grow into more fully functional people
    • works by: helping members care more for other peoples needs, empowers social norms, and experiencing feelings fully
  15. Q-sort
    • measures the quality of therapy
    • given at the end and beginning
    • the person is given a group of cards and they must sort out words that describe their ideal self
    • determines if incongruency lessened througout therapy
  16. subception
    • the process in which we defend our conscience from recieving threatening information
    • most common defenses are distortion or denial
    • both are not healthy means of processing information
  17. self-actualized personality
    • more likely to accept themselves for what they really are
    • admit they're weaknesses, but try to improve as much as possible
    • won't dwell too much on failures
    • less restricted by cultural norms and customs
  18. Hierarchy of needs
    • physiological
    • safety (first two must be satisfied before moving to higher needs)
    • social
    • esteem
    • cognitive
    • aesthetic
    • self-actualization
  19. physiological needs
    need for food and water
  20. safety needs
    safety and protection from threats such as predators and elements
  21. social needs
    the need to belong with others
  22. esteem
    the need to satisfy self-esteem
  23. cognitive needs
    the need to think or learn more
  24. aesthetic needs
    • the need for higher values of culture
    • understanding the true beauty in fine arts
    • experiencing inspiration
  25. self-actualization needs
    the need to utilize full potential
  26. peak experiences
    • brief moments when someone experiences self-acutalization
    • happens when the person is so engaged in something that utilizes their full potential
    • they lose all sense of time and who they are
  27. eupsychian management theory
    • organzing a company so that it helps employees satisyfy higher needs as well as a means for income
    • awards assume that an employee has a need for something on the pyramid
  28. self-disclosure research
    • someone shares information in hopes that the other person will share information as well
    • happens like a normal distribution in that few share too much or too little
    • benefits: increased mental health and more liked
    • females share more
  29. exceptions to self-disclosure and mental health
    • happens when people share too much information too soon or when they continue to give information when the other person isn't sharing back
    • results: lower social skills and less liked as a person
  30. reciprocity norm
    When you share personal information with another person you expect to get personal information from them
  31. loneliness research
    • isolated not by choice
    • happens in a positive feedback loop
    • process: pessimism towards interactions
    • lower social skills
    • less intimate social relationships
    • more pessimism
  32. self-fulfilling prophecies and loneliness
    the lonely person's pessimism towards interactions with others causes a lessened expectation from the interaction
  33. humanistic therapy for loneliness
    improving ones pessimism towards interactions can help the feedback process and make it more positive
  34. self-esteem research
    • tested peoples reactions to negative comments about themself
    • people were given fake IQ tests to temporarily change self-esteem
    • High esteem: became more motivated from the negative feedback
    • low esteem: negative feedback causes them to give up more easily
  35. Lake Wobegon Effect
    • everyone will be more likely to see themselves as above average
    • statistically impossible
    • happens in just about ever profession
    • good for mental health
    • too much leaves little room for improvement
  36. solitude research
    • people with a high need for solitude will fight and value it more
    • self actualized peopl need more solitude
    • correleated with less stress, few but close friends, age
  37. learned helplessness (dog study)
    • dogs were put in a box where it was separated in two sides
    • one side of the floor would shock the dog causing it to jump to the other then other side would also cause a shock
    • when this was done again, the dogs that got shocked on both side would not try to jump to other side
  38. learned helplessness (human study)
    • a person would hear an annoying noise and when they answer a question it would be reduced
    • half got easy to solve problems the other half got impossible problems
    • during repeat, the impossible half would not try to solve puzzle
  39. depression and learned helplessness
    teaching depressed people that their achievements are worthwhile can make a huge difference in depression
  40. elderly homes
    • nursing homes only satisfies the first two levels of needs
    • assisted living helpds fulfill higher levels of needs
  41. J.B. Watson
    • Little Albert experiment
    • Classical conditioning
  42. B.F. Skinner
    • Operant Conditioning
    • No personal freedom or freewill
    • skinner's rats/skinners box
    • shaping
  43. Ivan Pavlov
    • Pavlov's dogs (salivate to bells)
    • Classical conditioning
  44. Joseph Bandura
    • Obervational learning
    • modeling
    • Bobo Doll experiment
    • Self efficacy
  45. Focus of behavioral psych Approach
    Behavior is learned and observed
  46. Little Albert
    • Done by J.B. Watson
    • Watson turned a curious baby into a child who was extremely fearful of fluffy things
    • done by classical condition
    • made the baby hear a loud clank everytime it saw a white rat
  47. Operant Conditioning
    learning through rewards and punishments
  48. Skinner Box
    Rats inside a box were gradually rewarded with a treat when it got close to pushing a lever.
  49. Shaping
    rewarding approximations towards a goal
  50. schedules of reinforcement
    rewards are given continuously or intermittently
  51. continuous rewards
    • rewards are given everytime the desired behavior is accomplished
    • not as good because the connection between behavior and reward can fade
  52. intermittent rewards
    • A reward is given at certain times when the desired behavior is accomplished
    • reward is more valued
    • learned response is more maintained
  53. Positive reinforcement
    • meant to increase behavior
    • something positive is given
    • get candy for good behavior
  54. negative punishment
    • meant to decrease behavior
    • something good is taken away
    • example:Time watching tv is taken away
  55. positive punishment
    • meant to decrease behavior
    • give something unpleasent
    • Example: give a spanking for bad behavior
  56. negative reinforcement
    • meant to decrease behavior
    • remove something unpleasent
    • example: don't have to do dishes for good behavior
  57. Classical Conditioning
    • Learning by triggered associations
    • pairing a rat with a loud crashing noise
  58. Unconditioned stimulus
    • something that naturally evokes a physiological response
    • example: dog food
  59. unconditioned response
    • The physiological response that was evoked by the UCS
    • example: dogs salivate when there is dog food
  60. Conditioned stimulus
    • A learned association to the Unconditioned stimulus
    • A bell is rung everytime it is time for the dogs to be fed
  61. conditioned response
    • a learned response to the conditioned stimulus
    • example: dogs learn to salivate when a bell is rung
  62. stimulus Generalization
    • when a phobia or behavior isn't limited to specific situations
    • example: A child who thinks candy when it sees a bright colored condom wrapper
  63. Stimulus discrimination
    • When a behavior is limited to the specifc situations
    • example: someone is disgusted by shrimp but when served a dish of other types of shellfish they won't have a problem
  64. Modeling
    • learning by seeing someone of a higher authority do the same task
    • example: Bobo Doll experiment
  65. Bobo Doll study
    • Children were shown videos of adults interacting with a bobo doll
    • the children who were shown adults interacting aggressively did the same
  66. Self efficacy
    The belief of how well you will do at something
  67. Self efficacy therapy
    • guided mastery
    • vicarious learning
    • verbal persuasion
    • self talk
  68. guided mastery
    slowly building one's confidence by letting the person master small steps to the overall goal
  69. vicarious learning
    • learning by seeing someone similar do the task
    • example: a lady who's afraid to drive watching an old man drive
  70. verbal persuasion
    • controlling what the patient becomes exposed to
    • example: limit exposure to the people who want to see you fail and surround yourself with those who want to see you succeed
  71. self-talk
    the patient comes up with encouraging phrases and increases the exposure to that phrase
  72. Reciprocal determinism
    • The argument that external determinants and internal determinants are a system of interacting influence that influence behavior
    • internal/external determinants
  73. external determinant
    behavior that is motivated by rewards and punishments
  74. internal determinant
    behavior that is influenced by thoughts and beliefs
  75. Mary Ainsworth
    Theory of attachment
  76. behavior modification therapy through classical conditioning
    • systematic desensitization
    • aversion therapy
  77. systematic desensitization
    • mostly for phobias
    • associating feared objects with relaxation techniques
    • steps:
    • 1)relaxation techniques are learned
    • 2)the feared object becomes associated with the relaxing technique
    • 3) the patient goes somewhere that associates with the feared object
  78. Aversion therapy
    An undesirable object is paired with negative reinforcement
  79. behavior modification therapy though operant conditioning
    • token economy
    • changing contigiencies
  80. changing contingiencies
    • changing unintentional rewards
    • example: changing the amount of attention a bully gets who happens to love attention
  81. token economy
    • Making up a fake currency that someone can trade in for privelidges
    • used in many "live-in" situations
    • tokens are rewarded differently between patients
    • given for good behavior or not doing bad behavior
  82. behavior assessment techniques
    • direct observation
    • self-monitoring
    • observations by others
  83. direct observation
    directly observing one's behavior
  84. self-monitoring
    • the client or patient observes themselves
    • patients are asked to keep records of when they engage in certain behaviors
  85. observations by others
    asking a parent or teacher to record the ferequency of behaviros
  86. agentic traits
    • traits that you can be in control over
    • confidence and assertiveness
    • males show more agentic traits
  87. communal traits
    • Traits that promote cooperation
    • nurturing, warmth, empathetic
    • females show this trait more
  88. androgony research
    • those who are androgynous are:
    • 1) the most psychologically healthy
    • 2) more interesting when it comes to first impressions
  89. agentic personality
    • high in agentic traits and low in communal traits
    • least likely to get along with a communal personality
  90. communal personality
    • someone who is high in communal traits and low in agentic traits
    • least likely to get along with an agentic personality
  91. androgynous personality
    • someone who is high in both agentic and communal traits
    • those who are married to this type of personality are most satisfied
  92. undifferentiated
    someone who is low in both agentic and communal traits
  93. external locus of control
    the belief that most of what happens to you is because of forces outside of their control
  94. internal locus of control
    The beliefe that things that happen to you are because of your own actions and attributes
  95. infant attatchment to adult attatchment
    • the types of attachment shown in infancy can be related to how adults reaction when a relationship is in trouble
    • secure: trusting; open communication
    • anxious/ambivilant: distrusting and clingy
    • avoidant: distrusting, distant (both physically and psychologically)
  96. secure infant attachment
    • when caretaker leaves- distressed
    • " " returns- easily comforted
    • " " stays- the child explores the room because it trusts that the adult will return
  97. axnious/ambivalent infant attachment
    • when caretaker leaves- the child is distressed
    • " " returns- clings to adult
    • " " stays- the child is untrusting because it doen't trust that the adult will return
  98. avoidant infant attachment
    • when caretaker leaves- not visibally distressed
    • " " returns ignores the adult but knows that it is there
    • " " stays ignores and avoids contact because it never did trust the adult
  99. special case of binging
    • to change behavior:
    • keep a record of when behavior is engaged
    • make it public so others can see
    • incremental punishment- every time the behavior is engaged give yourself a small punishment
Card Set
personality psych exam 3
psych terms for exam 3