Chap 7 HST

  1. The Great Divide
    • Protestants/Catholics,
    • Whites/Blacks

    • Between Liberal and Conservative
    • Christians

    • Liberal-valued openness,
    • pluralism, diversity, and mutual tolerance. Ethics emphasized love,
    • relationships, peace, justice, inclusiveness, tolerance of minorities and
    • acceptance of varieties of lifestyles and expressions of sexuality.

    • Conservatives-continued
    • to teach long-standing Christian and Jewish teachings concerning family,
    • sexuality, discipline and the importance of moral law. Also more patriotic,
    • firmly anticommunist, for strong military and law and order.
  2. Counterculture
    begins after assassination of kennedy

    was the "hippie" time
  3. Mainline churches
    • Joined the
    • counterculture, followed liberal trends. Created “Jesus culture”.

    See comic on page 255
  4. The Catholic Revolution
    • Declared
    • religious freedom, rather than the universal establishment of Catholicism by
    • law

    • Recognized Protestants as “separated
    • brethren” and encouraged dialogue with them.

    • Instead of only viewing the Church
    • as an institutional hierarchy that dispensed justice and grace, emphasized that
    • the Church is the body of Christ at the service of humanity.

    • Less services in Latin with priest
    • facing the wall, but with active participation from congregation, mass and
    • prayers in English, singing of hymns, more emphasis on sermons.
  5. Feminism
    • Questions
    • over whether family was based on temporary contract among equal individuals or
    • a structure reflecting a divinely sanctioned order.

    Questions over role in Churches.

    • Liberal and moderate
    • Protestants and Reform and Conservative Jews began accepting new roles for
    • women.

    • Women began running
    • missionary and educational societies by the Church.

    • Mainline Churches began
    • ordaining women in the 1920s, though very few. By the end of the 1970s, all
    • mainline protestant denominations were routinely ordaining women.

    • First ordained woman:
    • Barbara Harris-first bishop of Episcopal Church

    Feminist Theology

    • Built around themes of
    • liberation for the oppressed & attacks on formulated theologies by male
    • oppressors.

    • 1970s, inclusive
    • language in Bible and hymns begins

    • Question of God the
    • “Father”
  6. Gay and Lesbian Movement
    Paralleled feminist movement

    most liberal christians supported them

    created bitter and protracted debates within mainline denominations
  7. New Age, New (and old) religions
    • New
    • Religions blossomed in the 1960s.

    • Subcommunities included: Buddhism,
    • Shinto, Hinduism and Islam.

    Blossomed Crazy Religions:

    • Unification church:
    • Korean with Chrisitan heritage. Founder Sun Myung Moon claimedd to be latest
    • prophet of God, promised coming millennial kingdom.

    • People's Temple
    • Community-Rev. Jim Jones. Proclaimed himself a prophet of a new religion. Moved
    • his community toSouth American. Led 900 people in a mass suicide.

    • Branch Davidians-led by
    • self proclaimed Prophet David Koresh. Millenial group, violent standoffs with
    • the government.

    Other Blossomed Religions:

    American Zen Buddhism

    Hare Krishna

    • Community of Bhagwan
    • Shree Rajneesh: took over town in Oregon

  8. Habits of the Heart
    • Book written
    • by team in University of California. In depth look at the beliefs and values
    • typical of dominant American middle class.


    • Increase in compartmentalization
    • of life. Private life separated sharply from work.

    • Americans driven by
    • utilitarian individualism. Split between managers and therapists.

    • Individuals arrive at
    • their religious beliefs independent of any church or synagogue.
  9. Evangelical Resurgence
    Major growth among conservative churches and growth in pentacostal/charismatic
  10. Born Again Politics
    • Election of
    • Jimmy Carter who claimed to be a “born-again” evagelical. Unhappy with him
    • because he was also a liberal democratic.

    • Nixon Watergate scandal convinced
    • many Americans that morality and politcs should not be separate.

    • Important in convincing:
    • -Roe v. Wade & Legalizing
    • Abortion.

    • -Equal
    • Rights Amendment, forbidding discrimination
    • against women. (was not passed)
  11. Moral Majority
    • Conservatives
    • of all sorts of religious groups generated new political group. Focus on
    • family, sexuality (sexual permissiveness: music, movies, porn and ads),
    • militant patriotism and anticommunism.

    • Founded by Jerry Falwell. Big in
    • fundamentalism.

    • Claimed credit in getting Reagan
    • elected.
  12. Commericial Conservatism
    • Impact of
    • religious right amplified by television ministries.

    • Oral Roberts, Pat Robertson and 700
    • Club. Jim and Tammy Fay Bakker and PTL (Praise the Lord). Robert Schuller and
    • Crystal Cathedral.

    • Scandals: Oral Roberts claimed that
    • God told him He would kill Roberts if his supporters did not raise enough money
    • by a certain date. Jim Bakker carried on illicit sexual relationships, sent to
    • jail for financial fraud. Swaggart (who was critical of Bakker) was forced to
    • step down because of sexual improperties.
  13. Two poles of common culture
    • Ideological
    • Left

    Ideological Right

    • Both: Remarkably
    • Individualistic.Tended toward materialism. Comfortable with benefits and pleasures
    • of technological society. In their own ways moralistic.
  14. 21st century: living with differences
    • Mostly to do
    • with the differences with sexual relations and the different beliefs whether
    • that be between liberal and conservative Christians and homosexuality or sexual
    • behavior with public figures.

    • Promise Keepers and Million Man
    • March is protests by men to take responsibility for their families and sexual
    • fidelity.
  15. World Religions in America
    • Muslim
    • prominant in America by end of 20th century. Islam became rival to Judaism as
    • nation's second largest religious grouping.

    • Buddhism and Hinduism in America,
    • but Christianity is still dominant.
  16. American Religion around the world
    • Christianity
    • spread after fall of Soviet Union.

    • Remarkable world cultural
    • development: spread of American-style Christianity
  17. New Styles of American Spirituality

    • Large Perspective: American
    • religious life moving towards “a new spirituality of seeking”

    • Nonconfrontational spirituality
    • increased. Move away from strong political and social engagement.
Card Set
Chap 7 HST
Christianity in America, Midterm, chapter 7, fragmented america