Chap 6 HST

  1. Intro
    • - Effects of WWII: America as
    • a world leader (politics and morality) and widespread revival.

    • - 80s and Reagan: Attempt to
    • go return to WWII ideals, partially successful but impossible due widespread
    • change that had already occurred.

    • American Tri-faith melting pot
    • (pluralism): Jews, Protestants, Catholics.
    • Secularism fourth big part of American culture.
  2. WWII and the American Faith
    • - WWI: Protestant leaders
    • became pro-war, later realized that they had been influenced by pro-war propaganda. They then took anti-war stances,
    • Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, 15 nations renounced warfare as national policy.

    • - Pearl Harbor: December
    • 1941, changed stance of religious leaders to pro-war in the name of
    • survival. America may have been flawed,
    • but it was better than the alternatives and must be defended.

    • - Christian Republican Heritage:
    • Freedom and the American way of life were a great success of the
    • Judeo-Christian ways and must be defended.

    • - “Just War”: America’s
    • motives in WWII began to come into question.
    • Though they entered into the war for good reasons, the Japanese
    • internment camps, indiscriminate bombing of German cities (Dresden), and atomic
    • bombs led many to either renounce the war effort or accept terrorism against
    • civilians as part of war.

    • - American Idealism and
    • Anti-Communism: America as a world leader must be concerned with spreading
    • democracy and the Christian way of life.
    • Senator McCarthy and the Red Scare and the Cold War introduced militant
    • anti-communism, supported by Conservatives and Fundamentalists.
  3. Irony of American history
    • 1952 work by Reinhold Niebuhr, similarities between USA and Soviet
    • Union: achievement through technology and economic system, humanity defined in
    • terms of property, propaganda to “expose” other country as corrupt and to
    • portray itself as virtuous. Attempted to
    • create policy to stand up to Soviet Union and also to criticize America for
    • materialistic justification.
  4. The postwar revival
    • - Widespread but possible shallow (60% attended church, but over 50%
    • could not name a gospel)

    - Eisenhower: national symbol of spiritual values.

    - 1954: Under God added to Pledge of Allegiance.

    • - Religion and faith in general good, not necessarily
    • Christianity. Promoted optimism,
    • individualism, democracy, tolerance, and humanitarianism.
  5. Billy Graham: from fundamentalist to evangelical
    • - 1930s-40s: Fundamentalism widespread but not popular in media,
    • heavily criticized.

    • - 1945, established Youth for Christ, named Billy Graham as first full-time
    • evangelist.

    • - Caught attention for portraying America as Babylon rather than
    • Israel, wanted old-time American values.

    • - In 1957, accepted sponsorship of a group of liberal Protestants. Due to this, fundamentalist leaders John R.
    • Rice and Bob Jones Sr. broke Graham from fundamentalism.

    • - Fundamentalists broke from other conservative Protestant
    • conservatives, now called evangelicals (or neo-evangelicals.)
  6. Pentecostal Healing
    • - Oral Roberts: healed by tuberculosis young, hidden knowledge of
    • people and treatment of illnesses.
    • Stressed positive thinking and prosperity.
  7. Jewish indentity and the american way
    - Secularization of American Judaism.

    • - American Anti-Semitism after the war, like Ford’s Protocols of the Elders of Zion,
    • falsified documents that proclaimed a Jewish conspiracy to rule the world. Protestant churches prevented Jews from
    • buying homes, getting jobs, and getting into colleges.

    • - Jews found acceptance in the Democratic party, as well as stage and
    • comedy shows (Marx brothers).

    • - Holocaust and establishment of Israel caused great Jewish pride among
    • American Jews, caused an identity conflict.
  8. Catholics move into the main stream
    - Protestants equated Catholicism with totalitarianism.

    • - Catholicism flourished after the war, becoming a large part of
    • American religion.

    • - Election of Kennedy in 1960 caused outrage among some, but large
    • acceptance of Catholicism among others.

    - Second Vatican council, great reforms in Catholic Church.
  9. Civil Rights
    - Blacks shifted from Republican to Democratic.

    • - Black churches greatly supported institutions like NAACP, great
    • source of power.

    - Christian in tone and prophecy.
  10. Martin Luther King Jr.
    - Taught at Northern, liberal Protestant schools.

    • - Believed and preached social gospel, combined American Protestant
    • ideals with African-American religious heritage, power of love, tolerance, and
    • anti-violence.

    • - Became Baptist preacher, supported Montgomery bus boycott, led
    • protest of Southern Christian Leadership Conference, “I Have a Dream” speech.

    - Black integration into mainstream society.
  11. Alternatives for Black Power
    • - Separatist Black Nationalism:
    • Henry McNeal Turner, Marcus Garvey, African movement and colonization away from
    • America.

    • - Black Muslim movement, Malcolm X: Anti-White and anti-Christian,
    • Christianity portrayed as the religion of the white people.

    • - Though Black Muslim movement gained a lot of power, most leaders
    • against King were still Christian leaders.
Card Set
Chap 6 HST
Christianity in America, Midterm, Chapter 6