Chap 5 HST

  1. Burning question:

    How should religion relate to a changing America?
    Become inclusive

    • Move toward being sectarian- giving society
    • control but remaining pure within one’s own group

  2. Influence of the civil war
    • -Many large protestant denominations
    • (Methodists, Baptist, and Presbyterians) had created their own sections in the
    • south and remained separate after the war.

    • -Southerners held onto the 1850s style revival
    • evangelism, generally making them more conservative, and accusing the North of
    • being too liberal

    • -White south was like its own ethnic group:
    • strong sense of national identity. Religious conservatism (including keeping
    • race separate)
  3. Prohibition
    • -The “high water mark” for the
    • usually elusive ideal of a unified evangelical civilization

    • Excessive consumption was the first
    • major drug problem

    • By the late 19th century
    • it was a mark of the secular civilization and its opposition was a chief symbol
    • of evangelical civilization

    • Unique to American Protestantism
    • was the complete abstinence, which caused tension among immigrants that drank
    • as part of their culture.

    • -opposition said that Jesus turned
    • water into wine and that the solution was moderation, not abstinence

    • -1895 Anti-Saloon League was
    • largely protestant (Methodists and Baptists had special fervor)

    • -1920 the 18th amendment
    • went into effect banning the commercial manufacture and sale of alcoholic
    • beverages from the country.
  4. War and Peace
    • -Churches were not really pacifists,
    • but believed in a “just war”

    • -Christians were troubled by
    • violence in the name of the Prince of Peace

    • -American Peace Society of 1828
    • tried to promote peace whenever possible.
    • It was overwhelmed during the civil war, but became part of the Women’s
    • Christian Temperance Union

    • Campaigns for world peace peaked
    • right before WWI

    • 1911 the Federal Council of
    • Churches formed a Commissions on Peace and Arbitration

    • -William Jennings Bryan stepped
    • down from President Wilson’s cabinet in 1915 after the sinking of the Lusitania
    • fearing it would bring the US to war

    • -Sentiments changed when in 1917
    • the US entered WWI.

    • -For some it was the millennial
    • hope that this was the “War to end all wars”

    • -Patriotism was linked to the US’
    • religious heritage. It was all part of a form of zeal for an American
    • democratic way of life, even though it was a somewhat secularized form of the
    • old deal of Christian and republican civilization

    • -only peace churches were excluded
    • in supporting the war, and it served as bringing unity. It was even a major
    • step for conservative southerners in transferring their loyalty from the
    • confederacy.
  5. Fundamentalists vs. Modernists
    • Protestant Christianity had a
    • strong impulse to stay with whatever changes were going on in the culture
    • because they stood so close to the centers of power

    • -Created modernism among liberal
    • Protestants as a way to build a progressive democratic worldwide civilization
    • based on brotherhood (as they put it) of all people under the fatherhood of God

    • -Premillenialists were on the
    • opposite end in that their hope for humanity was not building a liberal
    • civilization, but the return of Jesus

    • -1910-1915 pamphlets made called The Fundamentals that defended
    • traditional protestant faith against theological liberalism
  6. Billy Sunday
    • More of an outsider when it came to
    • mainline Protestantism

    • -Mixed the technique of Finney with
    • Moody’s disinterest of deep theological discussion

    • -Would do radical things on stage,
    • much like an actor

    • -gospel was a mix of popular
    • Americanism and revivalist Christianity
  7. Post War
    • War brought unity and in 1919 the
    • Interchurch World Movement was launched to keep that unity

    • -These plans collapsed, as the gap
    • grew larger between conservatives and liberals.

    • -Conservatives said that America’s
    • problem was moral because it was founded on the Bible while the liberals pushed
    • for evolutionary-based philosophies and humanism as the solution
  8. Dawinism
    • Darwinism was seen as why WWI could
    • occur if people were just animals that could be slaughtered. Therefore there was no basis for morality.

    • -Therefore, a society founded on
    • the Bible is better than one founded on evolution and Darwinism.

    • -1919 William Jennings Bryan begins
    • campaign against teaching evolution in Schools
  9. Fundamentalism
    • -First used by Curtis Lee Laws in 1920 to described
    • militantly conservative Protestants

    • -Meant that they were willing to
    • fight for fundamental doctrines that liberals denied such as the inerrancy of
    • the Bible, the virgin birth of Jesus, the authenticity of Jesus’ miracles,
    • atonement for sin through the death of Christ, Jesus’ resurrection, and His
    • coming again.

    • -Fought against modern theology in
    • their denominations and against secular trends in culture

    • -1922 Henry Fosdick plead for
    • tolerance in his denomination in “Shall the Fundamentalists Win” but was kicked
    • out instead.

    • -in 1923 J. Gresham Machen wrote
    • Christianity and Liberalism saying that liberal Christians should create their
    • own churches because they are a different religion.
  10. Scopes Trial
    • -1925 in Dayton, TN. Clarence Darrow defended John Scopes for
    • teaching evolution against William Jennings Bryan

    • -H.L. Menken was the reporter that got the media
    • attention.

    • -It was seen as a competition between theism and
    • evolution, as well as rural simplicity and urban sophistication

    • -Darrow called Bryan to the stand as an expert
    • on the Bible where he mocked him with token atheist questions

    • -Scopes was found guilty, but only received a
    • small fine

    -It was the image of defeat for fundamentalism

    -Bryan died 5 days later

    • -Afterwards, fundamentalists were not supported
    • in their mainline denominations and left in order to create their own churches
    • and bible schools
  11. Catholics and the election of 1928
    • -Al Smith was a Democratic Republican
    • who ran for the presidency in 1928

    • -The south was democratic simply
    • because it still had a resentment for republicans from the war, but it also had
    • a hate for Catholics

    • -Both conservative and liberal Protestants
    • disliked Catholics, with fundamentalists not likening them the most

    -Smith did not favor prohibition.

    • Smith was defeated and it was seen
    • as a cracking of the Solid South for Hoover
  12. Catholicism: building an identity
    • Ethnic community was key as well as
    • traditions

    • School systems allowed them to
    • teach what they wanted besides the secularism of public schools

    • -Colleges put more Catholics in the
    • mainstream

    • -Emphasis on neo-Thomism, which
    • said that reason was not an enemy of faith

    • -Bred its own American
    • Fundamentalism, such as Father Coughlin
  13. Acids of Modernity
    -becoming a sensate society

    • -looked to humanism for a basis of
    • morals

    -sex became commercialized

    • -Christianity became a means of
    • character building, and not social reform
  14. Pragmatism
    -John Dewey

    • -Its not about what is actually
    • true, but what works

    • -school should replace churches in
    • teaching common ideals
  15. Neo-orthodox critique
    • -Karl Barth said that there was a
    • huge gap between what man could learn just through reason and what he could
    • learn through true knowledge of God, which could only be known through Christ

    • -H. Niebuhr: preached the need to
    • be God centered, and that the church should use society as a means to spread
    • salvation or choose to be a political party or a school

    • -R. Niebuhr: we cannot put the same
    • standards on politics and social institutions that we can on individuals
    • because they promote self-interest.
    • Therefore, we cannot identify the Kingdom of God with any
    • social-political proposal. Also big on original sin
  16. A secular New Deal
    • -By the 1930s there was a clear
    • divine between the church and society as most entertainers, artists, and
    • leading American figures were openly secular

    • FDR repealed the 18th
    • amendment

    • -Pragmatism was applied to
    • politics, just as it had been to business.

    • -Progressivism meant finding the
    • most effective means of getting something done, and it put ethics on the back
    • burner
Card Set
Chap 5 HST
Christianity in America, Midterm, chapter 5