Chapter 1 HST

  1. The Reformation (Martin Luther, 1517)
    -Lutherans were largest group of protestants,

    • -Second were Calvinists: rely on God and not on humanity in
    • religious matters, God is sovereign; some were Puritans

    • -All Protestants battled Catholics for European control,
    • therefore, “The New World” was important for Catholics
  2. Puritans
    • -First modern revolutionaries (revolution around 1640’s and
    • 50’s)

    • -Relationship between God and the Nations, saw themselves as
    • a new Israel, therefore, wanted America to be Biblically based, John Winthop
    • (governor) said America was a “city on a hill”

    • -“beacons to the world demonstrating the virtues of a
    • republic

    • -not everyone was happy, Anabaptism formed as an “outsider
    • version of Christianity”

    • -Baptist movement began (illegal in England), Roger Williams
    • was one of the first clergymen: separation of church and state, considered
    • radical

    • -said
    • that even the poorest person could be a spiritual equal

    -Puritans executed King Charles I in 1649
  3. Quakers/Society of Friends
    -emphasized Spirit being an “Inward Light” in all people

    • -simplicity and pacifists, women and men spiritual equals,
    • Bible alone

    • -Anne Hutchinson, died at hands of Indians in 1643 after
    • claiming direct voice from God’s spirit

    • -William Penn “Holy Experiment,” allowing people to have
    • spiritual freedom in Pennsylvania, his land

    • -George Fox, started Society of Friends condemned slavery in
    • 1657
  4. Great Awakening (1700s)
    series of revivals among Presbyterians in Mass.

    • -George Whitefield (Calvinist) traveled and preached; start
    • of “revivalism”

    • -John Edwards was another leading preacher in Mass. and was
    • a missionary to the Indians

    -big impact on women and black people in church
  5. American Revolution (18th century)
    • -Great Awakening reflected many of attitudes of American
    • Revolution

    -strong ethnoreligious diversities contributed

    • -technological and scientific revolutions seemed to lead
    • people away from religion, however many of the scientific ideas were not at all
    • contradictory, but complimentary

    -Declaration of Independence

    • -Jefferson and Locke’s thoughts
    • from English Enlightenment (universal moral laws from reason)

    • -Strong connections to the Puritan
    • covenant


    • -Commonwealth or Dissenters came
    • from Puritans didn’t want too much executive power on the government, big
    • impact on Americans

    • -revolutionary traditions all
    • thought virtue was essential to American republican enterprise

    • -Christian preachers popularized
    • the political connotations of millennial age of Christ and they referred to the
    • Papacy as the Antichrist, meaning Catholic defeat meant being closer to new
    • millennium

    • -Eventually America was a nation
    • with many Christian principles, but
    • seemingly allowed the country to be an object of worship, national loyalty
    • demanded above religious loyalty in times of war (except pacifists)

    -U.S. Constitution

    • -established freedom of religion
    • along with Enlightenment thought and guaranteed church and state separation

    • -created a “wall of separation” as Jefferson put it
    • (he may or may not have wanted that)
Card Set
Chapter 1 HST
Christianity in America, Midterm, Chapter 1