Govt Ch 12

  1. Congress is made up of how many members?
    535 members (100 in Senate, 435 in House)
  2. What are the requirements to become a representative in the House?
    • - at least 25 years old
    • - citizen for 7 years
    • - must be a resident in the state in which they are elected
  3. What are the requirements to become a member of the Senate?
    • - at least 30 years old
    • - citizen for 9 years
    • - must be a resident of the state in which they were elected
  4. What sections of the population are underrepresented in Congress?
    minorities and women
  5. Descriptive Representation
    representing constituents by mirroring their personal, politically relevant characteristics
  6. Substantive Representation
    representing the interests of certain groups
  7. Who are the two players in an election?
    incumbents and challengers
  8. Incumbents
    those who already hold office and are seeking reelection, which they usually win (90%)
  9. True or False: It is easier for a representative to be reelected than a Senator.
  10. Presidential "Coattails"
    when voters support congressional candidates because of their support for the president
  11. 3 Activities That Increase Reelection Probability
    • 1. advertising ("visibility")
    • 2. credit claiming
    • 3. position taking and weak opponents
  12. Credit Claiming
    enhancing their standing with constituents through service to individuals and the district
  13. 2 Ways to "Service the Constituency"
    • 1. casework
    • 2. pork barrel
  14. Casework
    helping constituents as individuals
  15. Pork Barrel
    the list of federal projects, grants, and contracts available to cities, businesses, colleges, and institutions
  16. 3 Ways an Incumbent Can Be Defeated
    • 1. incumbent is tarnished by scandal
    • 2. incumbents are redistricted
    • 3. major political tides may sweep the country
  17. Term Limitations
    used to create and increase turnover in the membership of Congress
  18. Bicameral Legislature
    legislature is divided into two houses
  19. House Rules Committee
    reviews bills coming from a House committee before they go to the full House
  20. Filibuster
    tactic by which opponents of a bill use their right to unlimited debate as a way to prevent the Senate from ever voting on a bill
  21. Cloiture
    halts filibuster on a debate
  22. House vs Senate: Constitutional Powers
    • House: must begin revenue bills; passes impeachment articles
    • Senate: gives consent to Presidential nomination; approves treaties; tries impeached officials
  23. House vs Senate: Membership
    • House: 435
    • Senate: 100
  24. House vs Senate: Terms of Office
    • House: 2 years
    • Senate: 6 years
  25. House vs Senate: Constituency Size
    • House: smaller
    • Senate: larger
  26. House vs Senate: Centralization of Power
    • House: more centralized
    • Senate: less centralized
  27. House vs Senate: Political Prestige
    • House: less prestige
    • Senate: more prestige
  28. House vs Senate: Role in Policymaking
    • House: influential on budget; specialized
    • Senate: influential on foreign affairs; less specialized
  29. House vs Senate: Turnover
    • House: small
    • Senate: moderate
  30. House vs Senate: Role of Seniority
    • House: more important
    • Senate: less important
  31. House vs Senate: Procedures
    • House: limited debates and floor amendments
    • Senate: unlimited debate
  32. Speaker of the House
    official mandated by the Constitution; chosen by majority party; has formal/informal powers; 2nd in line to succeed President
  33. 4 Duties of the Speaker
    • 1. presides over House in session
    • 2. makes committee assignments
    • 3. appoints party's legislative leaders/party leadership staff
    • 4. controls which bills get assigned to which committees
  34. Majority Leader
    ally of the Speaker; schedules bills and rounds of votes for that party's position
  35. Whips
    party leaders who count vote beforehand and lean on waverers whose votes are crucial to a bill favored by the party
  36. Minority Leader
    leader of minority party in House and Senate
  37. Who dominates Congressional policymaking?
    Committees who control the Congressional agenda and guide legislation
  38. 4 Types of Committees
    • 1. standing
    • 2. joint
    • 3. conference
    • 4. select
  39. Standing Committee
    subject matter committees in each separate house of Congress that handle bills in different policy areas
  40. Joint Committees
    few subject matter committees with membership drawn from both houses
  41. Conference Committees
    both houses work together to write a single bill from 2 separate, similar bills in each house
  42. Select Committee
    appointed for a specific purpose (ex: Watergate)
  43. Legislative Oversight
    Congressional committees/subcommittees process of monitoring the bureaucracy and its administration policy
  44. Committee Chairs
    most important influencers of the Congressional agenda; schedule hearings, hiring staff, appointing subcommittees, and managing committee bills brought before the full house
  45. Seniority System
    rule for picking committee chairs in effect until the 1970s
  46. General Rule
    seniority is first rule for selecting chairs
  47. Caucus
    a group of members of Congress who share some interest or characteristic
  48. What is the goal of a caucus?
    to promote the interests around which they formed
  49. 3 Parts of the Congressional Staff
    • 1. personal
    • 2. committee
    • 3. staff agencies
  50. Personal Staff
    provide services to constituents
  51. Committee Staff
    organize hearings, draft committee reports, etc.
  52. 3 Parts of Staff Agencies
    • 1. Congressional Research Service
    • 2. General Accounting Office
    • 3. Congressional Budget Office
  53. Congressional Research Service
    provides research, info, and studies to Congress
  54. General Accounting Office
    helps Congress review activites of executive branch
  55. Congressional Budget Office
    analyze President's budget and make economic projections
  56. Bill
    a proposed law, drafted in precise, legal language
  57. Unorthodox Lawmaking
    lawmaking not through the usual means
  58. Omnibus Legislation
    legislation that addresses numerous and perhaps unrelated subjects, issues, and programs to create winning coalitions
  59. At the Margins
    the description of the President as a facilitator who works at the margins of coalition building to recognize and exploit opportunities presented by a favorable configuration of political forces
  60. 7 Steps For How a Bill Becomes A Law
    • 1. Bill introduced in House or Senate; assigned to committee; sent to subcommittee
    • 2. Subcommittee approves the bill; goes to the committee; committee approves the bill; bill is put on the calendar; Rules Committee sends bill to full House or Senate leaders schedule debate on the bill
    • 3. Debated and voted on by full House and Senate
    • 4. Conference Committee from both houses meet to iron out differences in the bill
    • 5. Full House and Senate vote on Conference Committee bill
    • 6. President signs or vetoes bill; 2/3 vote in both House and Senate overrides the veto
    • 7. Bill is made into law
  61. 3 Theories of Constituency vs Ideology
    • 1. trustees
    • 2. instructed delegates
    • 3. politicos
  62. Trustees
    Burke's idea that Congressperson's use their best judgment to make policy in the interests of the people
  63. Instructed Delegates
    mirror the preferences of constituents
  64. Politicos
    adopt both trustee and instructed delegate roles as they strive to be both representatives and policymakers
  65. What is the central legislative dilemma for Congress?
    Combining the faithful representation of constituents with making effective public policy
Card Set
Govt Ch 12