Psychology Test #2

  1. Punishment:
    the stimulus/event/etc. following a behavior, which acts to decrease the likelihood of the behavior being repeated
  2. problematic aspects of punishment (6):
    • 1) produces negative emotional byproducts
    • 2) encourages lying
    • 3) may cause avoidance of punisher, not "wrong" action
    • 4) doesn't teach alternate desired response
    • 5) to be effective, it requires immediate application
    • 6) behavioral changes are generally temporary
  3. problems using corporal punishment with kids (5):
    • 1) teaches kids it's acceptable for people to love each other to intentionally hurt each other
    • 2) teaches it's ok to use violence as conflict-resolution
    • 3) violent adults usually come from violent childhoods
    • 4) it's unethical for big people to hurt smaller ones
    • 5) most of the time, the parent is just trying to release anger & fear; not teach the kid
  4. Forms of behavior modification:
    Punishment & reinforcement
  5. types of punishment:
    • positive punishment
    • negative punishment
    • positive reinforcement
    • negative reinforcement
  6. Positive punishment:
    Adds something unpleasant to decrease a behavior
  7. Negative punishment
    Removes something pleasant to decrease a behavior
  8. Positive reinforcement:
    Adds something pleasant to increase a behavioral response
  9. Negative reinforcement:
    Removes something unpleasant to increase a behavior response
  10. which behavior modification has the most problematic effects:
    positive punishment
  11. which is used most often:
    positive punishment
  12. which is most effective?
    which is used the least?
    positive reinforcement (for both)
  13. Shaping:
    shaping principle:
    • Reinforcing closer & closer approximations toward a desired behavior.
    • always focus on the behavior you want; not the one you don't want
  14. Extinction:
    the weakening & eventual disappearance of a conditioned response once reinforcement is stopped
  15. How to avoid a conflict:
    • don't feed the conflict
    • don't take it personally
    • don't try to change the other person
Card Set
Psychology Test #2
Behavior Modification