1. Categories of Amino Acids
    • Nonessential (body can produce)
    • Essential (Must be taken via food)
    • Conditionally essential (essential during infancy, disease or trauma)
  2. 9 Essential Amino Acids
    • Histidine
    • Isoleucine
    • Leucine
    • Lysine
    • Methionine
    • Phenylanine
    • Threonine
    • Tryptophan
    • Valine
  3. Complete and Incomplete Proteins
    • Complete Proteins:
    • -Adequate amounts of all essential amino acids
    • -Animal Proteins
    • Incomplete proteins:
    • -Inadequate amounts of all essential amino acids
    • -Plant Proteins
  4. Complementary Proteins
    Combining plant proteins to compensate for limiting amino acids
  5. Synthesis of Protein
    • Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds to form proteins
    • Synthesis of protein determined by gene expression
    • DNA code transferred from nucleas to Cytosol via mRNA
    • DNA transcription phase
    • mRNA translation phase (tRNA transports RNA's)
    • DNA determines shape and functions of proteins
  6. Denaturation
    • Altering of proteins 3-dimensional structure
    • caused by acid, alkaline, heat, enzymes, and agitation
  7. Dietary protein sources in US vs Worldwide
    • US= 70% supplied by meat, poultry, fish, milk, legumes, and nuts
    • Worldwide=35% comes from animal
  8. 4 Methods of Determining Protein Quality
    • Biological Value
    • Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER): amount of weight gain produced by protein consumption
    • Chemical Score: ideal amount of AA's
    • Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score
  9. Recommended Intakes for Protein
    • Positive Nitrogen Balance:
    • -Protein Intake exceeds protein losses
    • Negative Nitrogen Balance:
    • -Protein losses exceed protein intake
    • Equilibrium:
    • -Protein intake equals protein losses
  10. Protein RDA for Adults, Recovery states, Athletes
    • Adults: .8g/kg of healthy body weight
    • Recovery States: .8-2g/kg of healthy body weight
    • Athlete: .8-1.7g/kg of healthy body weight
  11. Digestive Organs/Secretions in Protein Digestion
    • "Cooking denatures protein"
    • Stomach:
    • -hydrochlric acid denatures
    • -pepsin begins enymatic digestion
    • -gastrin controls release of pepsin
    • Small Intestine:
    • -CCK released which stimulates release of proteases
    • Amino Acids absorbed into portal vein
  12. Functions of Proteins
    • Producing vital body structures
    • Maintaining fluid balance
    • Contributing to Acid Base Balance
    • Foriming hormones, enzymes, and neurotransmitters
    • Contributing to immune function
    • Transporting Nutrients
    • Forming Glucose
    • Providing Energy
  13. 2 Examples of PEM "Protein Energy Malnutrition"
    • Marasmus: Minimal amounts of energy, protein, and other nutrients
    • Kwashiorker: minimal amounts of protein and moderate energy deficit.
Card Set
Nutrition Proteins