1. Triglyceride Structure
    • Diglyceride- Loss of one fatty acid
    • Monoglyceride- Loss of two fatty acids
  2. "Chain Length" Fatty Acids
    • Long Chain Fatty Acids- 12 or more carbons
    • Medium Chain Fatty Acids- 6-10 carbons
    • Short Chain Fatty Acids- Less than 6 carbons
  3. Saturated Fatty Acid
    Contains no double-bonds
  4. Difference between Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated fatty acids
    • Monounsaturated- One double bond
    • Polyunsaturated- Many double bonds
  5. Hydrogenation (meaning)
    Adding hydrogen to make an unsaturated fat more saturated-yields: Trans-fatty acids
  6. 2 Naming Systems of Fatty Acids
    • Omega System- double bond closest to Omega end
    • Delta System- uses carboxyl end and indicates location for all double bonds
  7. 2 Essential Fatty Acids
    • Omega 3 - Alpha-linolenic
    • Omega 6 - Linolenic
  8. Typical Food Sources of Lipids in Diet
    • Fruits and Veggies- except avocados and coconuts
    • Dairy
    • Grains
    • Fats
  9. Fat Replacements
    • Water
    • Protein
    • Carbs- starch derivatives, gum, fiber
    • Engineered fats- Olestra and Salatrim
  10. Functions of Triglycerides
    • Provide energy
    • Provide compact energy source
    • Insulate and protect body
    • Aid fat soluble Vitamin Absorption and Transport
    • Essential Fatty Acid Functions
  11. Phospholipids
    • Hydrophobic and Hydrophillic Ends
    • Functions:
    • -component of cell membranes
    • -Emulsifier
    • Sources:
    • -Synthesized by the body
    • -food: Eggs, wheat germ and peanuts
  12. Sterols
    • Structure: Ring-like known as cholestrol
    • Functions
    • -steroid hormones, bile, cell membranes, chylomicrons
    • Sources:
    • -Synthesized by the body
    • -Food: animals
  13. Lipid Intake Recommendations
    • Saturated fats: 10% of total calories
    • Polyunsaturated Fats: 10% of total calories
    • Cholosteral: 300 mg
  14. Fat Digestive Organs and Secretions
    • Mouth- Lingual Lipase
    • Stomach- Gastric Lipase
    • Small Intestine- CCK Triggers bile, Bile emulsifies fat -micelles are acted upon pancreatic lipase with aid of colipase
  15. 3 Main Lipid Groups and Digestive Process
    Triglycerides: Broken down to monoglycerides and fatty acids

    Phospholipids: Broken down to free fatty acids, glycerol, and phosphoric acid

    Cholestrol: broken into cholestrol and free fatty acids
  16. Fat Absorption "Pathways for chain fatty acids"
    • Short and Medium Chain: fatty acids absorbed into portal vein
    • Long Chain: re-estrified and enter lymphatic system
    • Bile: recycled via enterohepatic circulation
  17. Major Lipoproteins
    • Chylomicrons- transport of dietary triglycerides
    • VLDL- Produced by liver and release triglycerides
    • IDL- Formed by VLDL
    • LDL- Formed by IDL and contain mostly cholestrol
    • HDL- Pick up and recycle or dispose cholestrol
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