artery gets damed up over time, often near an anastomosis
divide in an artery
clot that travels to a point and lodges
too much blood in an area of the brain--arterial or veinous wall that burst and floods the surrounding area with blood.
accumulation of blood
artery or vein that has "ballooned out"
high blood pressure. over time, can thin out the artery or vein wall and cause hemorrhage
Acquired impairment of language processes that often underlie receptive and expressive modalities and is always characterized by anomia. aphasia is caused by damage to areas of the brain primarily responsible for language function
word finding/retrieval deficit
receptive or expressive modalities (how we communicate)
all modalities (how we communicate)
patients didn't say something they could say
patient say something that is a deficit
average of 9 or more words in a phrasing
word substitutions, produced unintentionally and by fluent or non fluent speakers
(literal) substitution, addition, or rearrangement of speech sounds so that the error sounds similar to the target (pike for pipe)
pathological breakdown in semantic boundaries between words that are related
semantic verbal paraphasia
error bears a semantic relationship to the target
(wife for husband)
unrelated verbal paraphasia
error bears no semantic relationship to the target
(chair for scissors)
fluently spoken paraphasia, bears no relationship the the patient's native language, usually spoken without recognition of the error
(planker for comb)
no relationship to the word, they dont know they are saying the wrong word
fluent, lengthy utterances that are primarily non-communicative
press for speech
a need to talk and go on, and on, and on....
word retrieval deficits. words are omitted from the target intended utterance
carry most of the meaning in a sentence
words that dont carry much meaning, but help the sentence to make sense
usually one word phrase that "sum up" the response.
the basic parts of a sentence may be uttered in a simple utterance
(S V O)
ex: go Target buy candy
verbal stereotypic speech
usually involuntary, repeated utterances that may make up the patient's entire vocab
ex: "I know"...
the coordinated operation of active mental processes within a multicomponent memory system
short term memory
immediate memory, about 7 pieces of data in capacity or only a few seconds in term of time
(long term memory) only lasts for a short period of time (hours to days) and is gone
ex: what ate for lunch 2 days ago
things that you dont forget
ex: how to read, recognize letters, ride a bike, etc
moving info from short term to long term memory
center of cognition. fast processor of info, but has a limited capacity
we all have certain amount of cognition resources available to us to use, when have brain injury, some of the resources are sucked away
a concentration of mental activity
can separate your attention among things and be successful.
focus attention on one thing, one piece of task. ability to pick out certain things based on need or stimulus--know what is important and insignificant
ability to move attention from one task to another fluidly
sustained attention/ vigilance
person can maintain their attention to task long enough to facilitate adequate processing
often difficult or complex or unfamiliar tasks that require focused attention
ex: learning how to drive a car
simple, familiar, or over-learned tasks. theses require a low level of awareness and attention and can divide the attention among multiple tasks
considering how much cognitive resources is needed to complete a task
set of cognitive abilities that control and regulate other abilities and behaviors. necessary for goal-directed behavior
visual field cut
perception example. 2 fields of vision with L and R eyes.
patient does not have a good awareness of their deficits--not ignoring them.
difficulty disorienting himself to the environment, not memory disorder or general confusion.
ex: getting around areas
recognition of faces
attributing yourself to somewhre that you are not, without being disoriented and memory deficit.
ex: patent know he is in the hospital, and knows where he lives-far away, then points out the window across the street to "his house"
visual field cut on one side, typically the left
not aware of their deficits
visual perceptual problem. patient does not recognize the object for what it is.
patient may not inform as much as they should or too much
shows problems in conversations and informing people of what info they need to know
patients see the detail, but cannot put that detail together in a whole picture
understanding alternatives related to reasoning and judgment.
cannot 'read between the lines' and make logical assumptions based on what they see
disturbances in the thought process of the individual
lesions in the cortex affect and makes changes
lesion is below the level of the cortex
can have dementia from multiple strokes (can happen once or over time)
not talking, caused by patient decided not to
open head injury
the skull is perforated
typically: less diffuse damage that is confined to a single region of the brain
closed head injury
skull remains intact. likely present with both primary damage to specific region of the brain and diffuse damage throughout the brain.
primary damage in the brain
injury opposite of the primary site, caused by momentum of the injury through the cranium
condition where the patient displays minimal, if any, purposeful response to external stimuli