1. Gregorian chant
    • Unaccompanied monophonic singing without meter
    • set sacred Latin texts in Catholic churches during Middle ages
    • Named after Pope Gregory
  2. Melismatic
    • Many notes sung to only one syllable
    • Opposed to syllabic (one or two notes per syllable)
  3. Mass
    Mass proper
    Mass Ordinary
    • Central, most important service of Catholic Church
    • Chants whose text changed to suit the feast day
    • Chants with unvarying texts sung every day
  4. What did Machaut do with the Mass?
    What was the advantage?
    • Before Machaut, composers writing polyphony had set only one or two sections of Proper of the Mass
    • Machaut set all the chants of the Ordinary
    • Could be heard on more than one feast day
  5. Organum
    • Early polyphonic setting of the Ordinary of the Mass
    • Composed for Notre Dame Cathedral by Perotinus & Leoninus
  6. Hildegaard
    • Gregorian chant composer, one of the first named composers
    • Music appeals to sensual experience (blood, breath)
    • Range huge by chant standards, big leaps of fourths & fifths
  7. Perotinus (1198-1238)
    • Choirmaster at Notre Dame of Paris
    • Created w/ Leoninus new style of chant: polyphony
    • Added wholly independent voice(s) above existing chant
    • Took centuries-old chant for mass (Viderunt Omnes), added 3 new voices above it
    • Jaunty triple-meter rhythm
  8. Tenor
    • The structurally fundamental line in medieval polyphony, moving very slowly, sustaining (holding) one note.
    • Provided harmonic foundation
  9. Guillame de Machaut (1300-1377)
    • Genius of Medieval music. Pre-eminent poet-compser of 14th-century.
    • Associated with Ars Nova- Middle Ages obsessed w/ rhythm, experimented w/ radical rhythmic composition
    • Developed motet and was the first to set the Ordinary of the Mass in triple meter (first to use triple meter)
    • Eliminated drone, put tenor in the middle, two on top, creating soprano/alto/tenor/bass (Perotinus had put all three above tenor)
    • Unlike P., spread out voices over 2.5 octaves, becoming first to use almost full range of chorus
  10. motet
    sacred Latin music for multiple voice parts
  11. Humanism
    • Renaissance ideal emphasizing human potential and belief that people could be morally educated
    • Belief that people are more than mere conduit for heaven, but have capacity to create & shape world.
  12. Josquin Desprez (1455-1521)
    • Franco-Flemish Renaissance composer
    • Excelled in motets
    • His Ave Maria (Hail Mary) uses standard four voice parts (S/A/T/B). As motet unfolds, voices enter in succession with same music motive (=imitation). Each voice equally important, yielding symmetry/balance.
    • Imitation: procedure whereby one more voices duplicate in turn the notes of a melody
  13. Counter-Reformation
    • Reform movement promoting more conservative/austere approach to art, in response to Protestant Reformation
    • Started w/ Council of Trent
    • Against imitative polyphony: arguing it obscures meaning
    • Palestrina accomodated its needs
  14. Palestrina (1525-1594)
    • Master of Sistine Chapel during Council of Trent
    • "Saviour of church music"
    • Missa Papae Marcelli: set text of Mass w/ exceptional clarity, mostly by homophony: very short, small points of imitation, no fluidity
  15. Baroque
    • 1600-1750
    • Highly ornamental melody w/ solid chordal foundation
    • Decoration seems to overrun fundamental harmonic structure. Asymmetry; "misshapen pearl"
    • Highly dramatic: singleness of emotion
    • Doctrine of Affections: diff. Musical moods influence emotions
    • Vocal virtuoso solo singing (monody) supported by basso continuo: bass-driven chordal support
  16. Madrigal
    Word painting
    • Italian secular music for (usually) 3-6 voices, text tends to be vernacular love poetry
    • 2) Attempt to express musicallythe meaning of a text: so common in madrigals, called "madrigalisms"
  17. Opera
    • Musical genre originating in late-16th cent Italy wedding music, drama, costumes & scenery
    • Emphasizes solo singing to express emotion
  18. Monody
    Expressive solo singing w/ small instrumental accompaniment, originating in early 17th-cent Italy
  19. 1) Recitative
    2) Aria
    3) arioso
    • 1) musical speech conveting actions of the plot
    • 2) moment of stasis in which characters reflect on plot. Passionate, tuneful, expresses emotion, extending vowels thru melisma
    • 3) mix of 2
  20. Coloratura
    Florid, melismatic singing w/ elaborate melody of 18th-19th cent, especially Bel Canto period. Came to mean display of physical prowess (sustaining high note, etc)
  21. da capo aria
    • Late Baroque era convention
    • A. Section
    • B. Contrasts in mood, tone, modality
    • A. (Not written out) sings it again with : ornaments:
  22. Claudio Monteverdi
    • 1567-1643
    • Argued against Artusi, who wanted Renaissance approach.
    • Said words are mistress of harmony. Used dissonance: broke Plato's alignment
    • Moved music to Baroque, emphasizing/ elevating the text
    • Innovator of monody/ recitative, eg in Orfeo
  23. Fugue
    • Late Baroque imitative polyphony for 2 or more voices involving exposition of subject, episodes of free counterpoint, further appearance of subject and ending w/ strong affirmaton on tonic key
    • Subject countersubject freecp
    • Answer countersubject
    • Then everything becomes free counterpoint
    • Then entry (complete statement of subject)
    • Then episodes (eg, fragmentation or unrelated to subject)
    • Structured way of listening: narrative form
    • Musical potential worked out, musical education
  24. Johann Sebastian Bach
    • 1685-1750
    • Rigorous contrapuntal music
    • Great length & contrapuntal complexity
    • Large scale works full of dramatic power, broad gestures, technical mastery - sense of "rightness"
    • Helped create church cantata: multimovement sacred works
    • Built Wachat auf on chorale: spiritual hymn of Lutheran church, easy to sing
  25. Cantata
    • "something sung" -began as monody, by Bach's time multimovement choir ensemble used in church services
    • Includes arias, ariosos, recitatives
    • Became musical core in Lutheran church service
  26. Opera seria
    Serious opera, most popular: Italian, tragic, mythical themes told in highly conventionalized format
  27. Opera buffa
    • Key style of opera in classical era: much lighter, slapstick, inside jokes, opera of the common people. Championed middle-class
    • More tuneful
    • Eroded distinctions btw recitative, etc. More fluid.
    • Coincided w/ emergence of musical public: post 1750, before which composed mainly for aristocrats, nobility
    • Musical representation of character
    • Used spoken dialogue & simple songs in place of da capo arias & recitatives
  28. Enlightenment
    • 18th-century movement emphasizing reason, secularism, Neoclassicism, human rights, social justice, individual liberties
    • Rise of criticism- music as intellectual object: not entertainment but a text to be analyzed. Sheet music cirulated, movement of music from public sphere to infornal spaces
    • Clarity, simplicity, grace, quiet, natural: reaction against flamboyance of Baroque
    • New genres: symphony, string quartet
  29. Symphony
    • Emerged by 1750 as major Instrumental genre with 4-movements: fast, slow, minuet, fast
    • Derived from Italian sinfonia (1 movement in 3 sections)
  30. Moazart
    • 1756-1791
    • Marriage
  31. Sonata-allegro form
    • First movement in a 4-movement Classical symphony: fast
    • Consists of exposition, development and recapitulation
  32. Sonata-allegro Form
    Image Upload 1
  33. Exposition (A)
    • Presents main themes:
    • 1st Theme, always in tonic key
    • Then transition / bridge from tonic to dominant (or, if in minor key, from tonic to relative major). Prepares arrival of second theme, often rapid figural patterns.
    • 2nd Theme contrasts w/ first (slow-fast, etc)
    • Ends with closing theme, often just oscillating btw dominant/tonic chords
    • Exposition repeats
  34. Development (B)
    • Most of the drama occurs: working out of thematic material.
    • Themes can be extended, varied, or transformed.
    • Dramatic confrontation can occur between several themes
    • Contrapuntal possibilities, brief fugato
    • Unstable and unsettling. Harmony modulates quickly.
    • Retransition at the end restores tonal order (often pedal point on dominant)
  35. Recapitulation
    • Begins when dominant chord gives way to tonic key of exposition
    • Presents same musical events as exposition, though not exactly
    • One change: transition rewritten, since must end in tonic, stays on tonic
    • Imparts return to familiar, harmonic stability
  36. Introduction
    • Slow, stately, filled with ominous chords, provoking wonder about what will follow
    • Not part of exposition (not repeated)
  37. Coda
    • Section added to end of movement to wrap things up
    • Ends with by slowing down harmonic motion to just two chords, dominant and tonic, played over and over. Feeling of conclusion. THE END
Card Set
Music Midterm