originated in theUnited States in the 1940s and remainedstrong through the 1950s. Artists working inmany different styles emphasized spontaneouspersonal expression in large paintingsthat are abstract or nonrepresentational. Onetype of Abstract Expressionism is calledaction painting.
The seventeenth-century periodin Europe characterized in the visual arts bydramatic light and shade, turbulent composition,and exaggerated emotional expression.
The most influential style of thetwentieth century, developed in Paris byPicasso and Braque, beginning in 1907. Theearly mature phase of the style, called analyticalCubism, lasted from 1909 through 1911.Cubism is based on the simultaneous presentationof multiple views, disintegration, andgeometric reconstruction of subjects in flattened,ambiguous pictorial space; figure and ground merge into one interwoven surface ofshifting planes. Color is limited to neutrals.By 1912, the more decorative phase calledsynthetic or collage Cubism began to appear;it was characterized by fewer, more solidforms, conceptual rather than observed subjectmatter, and richer color and texture.
A movement in art and literature,founded in Switzerland in the early twentiethcentury, which ridiculed contemporary cultureand conventional art. The Dadaistsshared an antimilitaristic and anti-aestheticattitude, generated in part by the horrors ofWorld War I and in part by a rejection ofaccepted canons of morality and taste. Theanarchic spirit of Dada can be seen in theworks of Duchamp, Man Ray, Hoch, Miro,and Picasso. Many Dadaists later exploredSurrealism.
The broad term thatdescribes emotional art, most often boldlyexecuted and making free use of distortionand symbolic or invented color. More specifically,Expressionism refers to individual andgroup styles originating in Europe in the latenineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Seealso Abstract Expressionism.
A style of painting introduced inParis in the early twentieth century, characterizedby areas of bright, contrasting colorand simplified shapes. The name les fauves isFrench for “the wild beasts.”
A group movement that originatedin Italy in 1909. One of several movementsto grow out of Cubism. Futuristsadded implied motion to the shifting planesand multiple observation points of theCubists; they celebrated natural as well asmechanical motion and speed. Their glorificationof danger, war, and the machine agewas in keeping with the martial spirit developingin Italy at the time.
A cultural and intellectualmovement during the Renaissance, followingthe rediscovery of the art and literature ofancient Greece and Rome. A philosophy orattitude concerned with the interests,achievements, and capabilities of humanbeings rather than with the abstract conceptsand problems of theology or science.
A style of painting thatoriginated in France about 1870. (The firstImpressionist exhibit was held in 1874.)Paintings of casual subjects were executedoutdoors using divided brush strokes tocapture the light and mood of a particularmoment and the transitory effects of naturallight and color.
An architectural stylethat emerged in several European countriesbetween 1910 and 1920. Related to purismand De Stijl in painting, it joined structureand exterior design into a noneclectic formbased on rectangular geometry and growingout of the basic function and structure of thebuilding.
A style that developed in thesixteenth century as a reaction to the classicalrationality and balanced harmony of theHigh Renaissance; characterized by dramaticuse of space and light, exaggerated color,elongation of figures, and distortions ofperspective, scale, and proportion.
A nonrepresentational style ofsculpture and painting, usually severelyrestricted in the use of visual elements andoften consisting of simple geometric shapesor masses. The style came to prominence inthe late 1960s.
New classicism. A revivalof classical Greek and Roman forms in art,music, and literature, particularly duringthe eighteenth and nineteenth centuries inEurope and America. It was part of a reactionagainst the excesses of Baroque and Rococo art.
A general termapplied to various personal styles of paintingby French artists (or artists living in France)that developed from about 1885 to 1900 inreaction to what these artists saw as the somewhatformless and aloof quality ofImpressionist painting. Post-Impressionistpainters were concerned with the significanceof form, symbols, expressiveness, and psychologicalintensity. They can be broadly separatedinto two groups—expressionists, suchas Gauguin and van Gogh, and formalists,such as Cezanne and Seurat.
An attitude or trend of the1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. In architecture,the movement away from or beyond whathad become boring adaptations of theInternational Style, in favor of an imaginative,eclectic approach. In the other visual arts,Post-Modern is characterized by influencefrom all periods and styles, including modernism,and a willingness to combine elementsof all styles and periods. Althoughmodernism makes distinctions between highart and popular taste, Post-Modernism makesno such value judgments.primary colors Those hues that cannot
1. A type of representational art inwhich the artist depicts as closely as possiblewhat the eye sees. 2. Realism. The midnineteenth-century style of Courbet andothers, based on the idea that ordinary peopleand everyday activities are worthy subjectsfor art.
Period in Europe from thelate fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries,which was characterized by a renewedinterest in human-centered classical art, literature,and learning.
From the French “rocaille” meaning“rock work.” This late Baroque (c. 1715–1775) style used in interior decoration andpainting was characteristically playful, pretty,romantic, and visually loose or soft; it usedsmall scale and ornate decoration, pastelcolors, and asymmetrical arrangement ofcurves. Rococo was popular in France andsouthern Germany in the eighteenthcentury.
1. A literary and artisticmovement of late eighteenth- andnineteenth-century Europe, aimed at assertingthe validity of subjective experience as acountermovement to the often cold formulasof Neoclassicism; characterized by intenseemotional excitement, and depictions ofpowerful forces in nature, exotic lifestyles,danger, suffering, and nostalgia. 2. Art ofany period based on spontaneity, intuition,and emotion rather than carefully organizedrational approaches to form.
A movement in literature andvisual arts that developed in the mid-1920sand remained strong until the mid-1940s;grew out of Dada and automatism. Basedupon revealing the unconscious mind indream images, the irrational, and the fantastic,Surrealism took two directions: representationaland abstract. Dali’s and Magritte’s paintings,with their uses of impossible combinationsof objects depicted in realistic detail, typifyrepresentational Surrealism. Miro’s paintings,with his use of abstract and fantastic shapesand vaguely defined creatures, are typical ofabstract Surrealism.