Psych 101 Exam 1

  1. Definition of psychology:
    the study of behavior and mental process.
  2. 6 Psychological perspectives
    • Biological: nervous system, neurochemistry, hormones, genetics, and evolutionary influences.
    • Learning: environment and experience.
    • Cognitive: thinking, memory, language, and perception.
    • Psychodynamic: unconscious thoughts, conflicts, and desires.
    • Social: individuals behaving in groups.
  3. Psychiatry:
    medical specialty of diagnosing and treating mental disorders; can prescribe drugs
  4. Scientific method:
    • 1) Observation(s) or problem(s)
    • 2) Review the literature (evidence and support)
    • 3) Hypothesis (real first step of scientific method)
    • 4) Gather data (survey, case studies, natural observation)
    • 5) Analyze data
    • 6) Conclusion
  5. Confounding variable (in an experiment):
    interferes with the experiment.
  6. Positive correlation:
    Negative correlation:
    Coefficient of correlation:
    • 0.1 – 1.0 (line slope up)
    • -0.1 – -1.0 (line slope down)
    • (on graph) line showing average of results.
  7. Quasi experimental design:
    take what you can get; no control, no random
  8. Willhelm Wundt:
    • Father of modern psychology
    • Structuralism: immediate experience into the element (the nerve= basic unit)
  9. William James:
    • Father of American psychology
    • Functionalism: function or purpose of behavior and consciousness– mind, body, and spirit
  10. Ivan Pavlov:
    Conditional Learning; training dogs to salivate at sound of bell.
  11. Sigmund Feud:
    • Psychoanalysis: early childhood experiences and unconscious motivation
    • First to study dreams
  12. John Watson:
    • Behaviorism: learned, measured, and observed Little Albert Experiment.
    • Infants were made to fear lab rat by hitting huge gong when rat came in room.
  13. Max Wertherimer:
    "Gestalt (whole)" perception: weird pictures the look different when rotated.
  14. B. F. Skinner:
    • Behaviorism: learned, measured, and observed Reinforcements and Punishments
    • Behavior modification
  15. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers:
    • Humanism: personal growth and human potential
    • Unconditional positive regard
  16. Albert Bandura and Albert Ellis:
    • Cognitive: mental processing, how one thinks, aggression with Bobo The Clown doll.
    • "what you see is what you do"
  17. CAT scan, MRI, PET scan:
    Biomedical: biological explanations of behavior
  18. New Structuralism and Synapse:
    Neurotransmitters: neurochemicals
  19. Ethics:
    standard of competency within a specific field of study.
  20. Law:
    society of group rules and regulations.
  21. Morals:
    personal right and wrong.
  22. Social mores:
    a culture, society, or organized group right or wrong.
  23. Comparative psychology:
    like using lab rats and comparing to quasi experiment.
  24. Descriptive studies:
    observe and find answer.
  25. Case studies:
    pick and choose cases.
  26. Cross-sectional study:
    tests done in different areas.
  27. Longitudinal study:
    tests in different time periods.
  28. Meta-analysis:
    look at other variables affecting results.
  29. Obedience study:
    Stanley Milgram
  30. Prison Study:
    Phil Zimbardo
  31. Conformity:
    Solomon Asch
  32. Obedience to authority:
    human nature can't be trusted under a form of leadership.
  33. Zimbardo's Theory of Evil:
    • Stereotyping: generalization of characteristics of a group
    • Scapegoating: blame entire group
    • Deindividualization: individual doesn't count, group matters
    • Learned Helplessness: good people feel helpless and change
  34. Situational attribution:
    outside reasons why we behave the way we do.
  35. Dispositional attribution:
    inside reason why we behave the way we do.
  36. Fundamental attribution error:
    Overemphasize disposition, underemphasize situation.
  37. Self-serving bias attribution:
    • everything goes right: ME
    • everything goes wrong: everyone else.
  38. Just World hypothesis:
  39. Cognitive dissonance attitude:
    opposite belief, thoughts, and actions at the same time.
  40. Primacy effect attitude:
    first impressions count and people hold on to them.
  41. Prejudice attitude:
    negative attitude toward a group of people with shared characteristics.
  42. Discrimination attitude:
    making rules and regulations against a group of people based on shared characteristics.
  43. "isms" attitude:
    thinking one's group is more superior and others aren't worth living.
  44. Groupthink:
    when a group has a mind of its own.
  45. Group Polarization:
    group has a relatively neutral thought, but there are extremes in the group.
  46. Risky-shift:
    in a group situation, we tend to do riskier things.
  47. Bystander effect:
    the more people at a scene of an accident or trauma, the less help you will get (diffusion of responsibility).
  48. Altruism:
    helping people without expectation of reward.
  49. Attractiveness:
    • Consensus: majority
    • Infant experiment: rate attractiveness of infant
    • Proximity: how close would you stand to someone?
    • Similarities attract: more in common= more attractive
    • Halo effect: nicer attributes are given to more attractive people; being around attractive people increases attractiveness
    • Forensic: pick who considers client more attractive.
Card Set
Psych 101 Exam 1
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