1. biodivesity
    describes the variety of organisms at all levels of orgaization

    catalogue increased
  2. Pangolin grouped with...
    dogs and cats

    because they have many more similarities to mammals
  3. taxonomy
    branch of biology that describes, names, and classifies (groups) organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history
  4. Aristotle
    first grouped animals 2,400 years ago
  5. Linnaeus
    swedish naturalist who replaced old classification system

    system based on form and structure
  6. Linnaeus seven levels of organization
    1. domain 2. kingdom 3. phyla 4. classes 5. oders 6. family 7. genus 8. species
  7. Scientific Names
    2 Parts: Genus and Species
    • Human- Homo sapien
    • Amoeba- Chaos chaos
    • Eastern Box Turtle- terrapene carolina triuni
  8. ecology
    study of interactions between organisms and the living and non- living components of their enviornment
  9. animals need plants for...
    foot and oxygen
  10. plants need animals for...
    release of carbon gas by cellular respiration of other animals
  11. term for animals depending on each other such as plants and animals..
  12. Lyme Disease
    change goes up with increasing number of acorns
  13. biosphere
    all of earths life; 5-6 miles above earths surface, to deepest part of oceans.

    compared to thickness of an apples skin
  14. Ecosystem
    all the nonliving environment and organisms found in a particular place

    ex. pond
  15. community
    all the interacting organisms living in an area

    ex. all fish, turtles, plants, in the pond
  16. population
    includes all the members of a species that live in one place at a time (just one species)

    ex. flowers
  17. Habitat
    place where organism lives
  18. Biotic Factors
    • living components of the enviornment
    • ex. a pollinating insect
  19. abiotic
    • non living factors; physical plus chemical
    • ex. temperature
  20. Goldfish
    • has an optimal temperature range
    • shown on a tolerance curve

    acclimation- gold fishe raised in cold water tolerates cold water better than one raised in warm water
  21. conformer
    • regulate their internal conditions
    • ex. snake
  22. regulator
    • control some of their internal conditions
    • ex. bird
  23. excess heat
    shade or underground
  24. excess cold
    dormacy or hibernation
  25. Niche
    specific role, or way of life, of a species within its environment
  26. generalist
    • species with broad niches; can tolerate a range of conditions and use a variety of resources
    • ex.apposum
  27. specialist
    • species with narron niches
    • ex. koalas
  28. producers
    • most are photosynthetic and use light
    • some carry out chemosynthesis (bacteria) and use inorganic compounds
  29. gross primary activity
    the rate at which producers in an ecosystem capture energy or sunlight
  30. sugar is used for...
    cellular respiration, maintenance and repair, making new organic material
  31. biomass
    new organic material
  32. net primary activity
    • rate at which biomass accumulates
    • measured in (grams/m (squared)/ years)
    • tropical rainforest has best net primary activity, because:
    • light, temperature, precipitation
  33. organisms eating...
    herbivore- eat producers, carnivore- eat other consumers, omnivore- eat both producers and consumers, detritovore- consumers that feed on garbage of an ecosystem, decomposer- cause decay by breakdown of complex molecules into smaller ones
  34. trophic layers
    • indicates organisms position in the sequence of energy transfer
    • producers- level one
    • herbivores- level 2
    • predators- level 3
  35. food chain
    single pathway of feefing relationships among oganisms
  36. food web
    many food chains interlinked in one ecosystem
  37. 10 percent energy consumed in one trohic layer is incorporated because...
    • cougar cant break down all parts
    • energy from cellular respiration cant be used
    • no transfer of energy is 100 percent efficient
  38. water cycle
    evaporation, transpiration, precipitation
  39. carbon cycle
    photosynthesis, cellular respiration
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