1. list structural characteristics of epithelial tissue
    boundaries b/w diff environments
  2. list functional characteristics of epithelial tissues
    protection, absorption, filtration, secretion, & sensory reception
  3. describe apical surface
    upper free surface exposed to to the body exterior or cavity of sterna organs & may have microvilla/cilia
  4. describe basal surface
    lower attached surface & acts as a filter thru diffusion also where cell migrate thru to repair wounds
  5. are apical & basal surfaces on all epithelial tissues
  6. which types of epithelial tissues have microvilli/cilia on their surfaces
    simple columnar & psedostratified columnar
  7. are epithelial tissues able to regenerate
  8. describe the function of epithelial stem cells
    epithelial cells are exposed to friction & are rubbed off or damaged by hostile environments. They regenerate fast as long as they get nutrition
  9. describe simple squamous epithelial
    single layer of flattened cells w/ disc like nuclei & sparse cytoplasm; simplest of the epithelia
  10. name & classify the epithelial tissues
    • simple squamous
    • simple cuboidal
    • simple columnar
    • stratified squamous
    • pseudostratified columnar
  11. function of simple squamous
    allows passage of materials by filtration & diffusion; secretes lubricant in serosae
  12. location of simple squamous
    kidney, air sacs in lungs, lining of heart, blood vessels,& lymphatic vessels; ventral body cavity
  13. describe simple cuboidal
    single layer of cubelike cells w/ large, spherical central nuclei
  14. function of simple cuboidal
    secretion & absorption
  15. location of simple cuboidal
    kindey tubules, duct of secretory portions of small glands, ovary surface
  16. describe simple columnar
    single layer of tall cells w/ round nuclei, some bear cilia; layer may contain goblet cells
  17. location of simple columnar
    • nonciliated: lines most of digestive tract, gallbladder, & secretory ducts of glands
    • ciliated: lines the branchi, uterine tubes, & some regions of the uterus
  18. function of simple columnar
    absortion; secretion of mucus& enzymes: ciliated type proples mucus or reproductive cells by ciliary action
  19. describe pseudostratified columnar
    single layer of cells of differing height, some not reaching the free surface: nuclei seen at different levels; may contain mucus secreting cells &bear cilia
  20. location of pseudostratified columnar
    • nonciliated: males sperm carrying ducts & ducts of large glands
    • ciliated: lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract
  21. function of pseudostratified columnar
    secretion of mostly mucus, propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
  22. function of stratified squamous
    protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
  23. location of stratified squamous
    • nonkeratinized: forms the moist linings of esophagus, mouth, & vagina
    • keratinized: forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane
  24. describe stratified squamous
    • thick membrane composed of several layers; basal cells are cuboidal &/ columnar & metabolically active; surface cells are flattened (squamous), keratinized:surface cells are full of keratin & dead
    • basal cells are active in mitosis & produce the cells of most superficial layers
  25. which epithelial tissues contain goblet cells and what are their functions
    simple columnar
  26. gland
    one/more cells that make & secrete a particular product
  27. exocrine vs. endocrine glands
    • ex: More numerous than endocrine glands.Secrete products into ducts.Secretions released onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities
    • endo:Ductless glands.Secrete hormones that travel through lymph or blood to target organs
  28. multicellular vs. unicellular
    • uni: mucus & goblet cells; simple glands have unbranched ducts
    • multi: 2pts- ducts & secretory unit; compound glands have branched ducts
  29. how do exocrine glands function (give ex:)
    secrete their products onto body surfaces/ into body cavity by exocytosis (unicellular) or via an epithelium walled duct that transports the secretion to the epithelial surface (multi) ex: liver-secrete bile; pancreas-synthesises digestive enzymes
  30. how do endocrine glands function (give ex:)
    • produce hormones that they secret by exocytosis directly into extracellular space. from there they enter the blood/lymphatic fluid & travel to specific organs
    • ex: thyroid gland
  31. indicate common characteristics of connective tissue
    • 1. common origin-all CT arrive from embryonic tissue
    • 2. degrees of vascularity-cartilage is avascular & dense CT is poorly vascularized
    • 3. extracellular matrix-cells separate by nonliving extra cellular matrix( ground substance & fibers)
  32. list & describe structural elements of connective tissue
    • GROUND SUBSTANCE-Substance through which solutes diffuse between blood capillaries and CT cells
    • FIBERS- 3types:Collagen (white fibers)Strongest and most abundant type.Provides high tensile strength,elastic-Networks of long, thin, elastin fibers that allow for stretch.Reticular Short, fine, highly branched collagenous fibers
    • CELLS-Mitotically active and secretory cells = “-blasts”Mature cells = “-cytes”
  33. describe the types of connective tissue found in body
    • loose ct:areolar, adipose, reticular
    • dense ct: dense regular, dense irregular
  34. describe areolar ct
    gel-like marix w/ all 3 fibers: fibroblast, macrophages,mast cells, & some white blood cells
  35. function of areolar
    wraps & cushions organs; its macrophages phagocytize bacteria; plays role in inflammation; holds tissue fluid
  36. location of areolar
    widely distributed under epi of body;forms lamina propria of mucous membranes; packages organs; surrounds capillaries
  37. describe adipose ct
    matrix as in areolar, but very sparse;closely packed adipocytes,fat cells, have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplet
  38. location of adipose ct
    under skin in the hypodermis; around kidneys & eyeballs; w/in abdomen & in breast
  39. function of adipose ct
    provides reserve food fuel; insulates against heat loss; support & protects organs
  40. describe reticular ct
    network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance; reticular cells lie on the network
  41. location of reticular ct
    lymphoid organs- lymph nodes, bone marrow, & spleen
  42. function of reticular ct
    fibers form soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types including white blood cells, mast cells, 7 macrophages
  43. describe dense regular ct
    primarily parallel collegan fibers; a few elastic fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast
  44. location of dense regular ct
    tendons, most ligamnets, aponeuroses
  45. function of dense regular ct
    attache muscle to bones/to muscles; attaches bone to bone; w/stands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction
  46. describe dense irregular ct
    primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers; some elastic fibers; major cell type is fibroblast
  47. location of dense irregular ct
    fibrous capsules of organs & of joints; dermis of skin; submucosa of digestive tract
  48. function of dense irregular ct
    able to w/stand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural support
  49. what types of cells are seen in connective tissue
    • Fibroblasts in connective tissue proper
    • Chondroblasts and chondrocytes in cartilage
    • Osteoblasts and osteocytes in bone
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