Anatomy and Physiology 2 Exam 2

  1. What are the components of blood?
    • Blood Plasma
    • Formed element

    Those two make whole blood
  2. What are the major functions of blood?
    • Transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes
    • Regulating pH and ion composition ISF
    • Restricting fluid loss at injury sites
    • Defending the body against toxins and pathogens
    • Regulating body temperature by absorbing and redistibuting heat
  3. What is the function of plasma?
    Clotting of blood
  4. What is the composition of plasma?
    92% Water and 7% Plasma proteins
  5. What are the characteristices of RBC's?
    • RBC/Erythrocytes
    • WBC/leukocytes
    • Pllatelets/thrombocytes
  6. What are the functions of RBC's?
    • Carry O2
    • Immune response
    • Help stop blood loss
  7. What is the structure of Hemoglobin?
    • Globulin-complex quaternary shape
    • Heme-iron contain pigment portion
  8. What is the function of hemoglobin?
    Transportation of O2
  9. What is Erythropoiesis?
    • Red bone cell production.
    • Occurs in the red bone marrow
    • Sped up by erythropoietin
    • Requires B12 and folic acid
  10. What is the importance of blood typing?
    So that there are no cross reactions between the different blood types.(Clotting)
  11. What is the basis for ABO and Rh incompatibilities?
    Surface antigens
  12. What are the 2 different categories of WBC's?
    Granular-Have granules in their cytoplasm that are actually lysosomes

    Agranular-Lack granules
  13. What are the 5 types of WBC's?
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes
  14. What is the structure of platelets?
    • Disc-shaped elements without nuclei
    • Not true cells
  15. What is the functions of platelets?
    Help stop blood loss from damaged blood vessels by forming a platelet plug
  16. How are platelets produced?
    Under thrombopoietin myeloid stem cells megakaryocytes. They are the fragments of the megakaryocytes.
  17. What is the mechanism that controls blood loss after and injury?
  18. What is the sequence of events responsible for blood clotting?
    • Vascular phase
    • Platelet Phase
    • Coagulation phase
  19. What makes up the cardiovascular system?
    • Blood
    • Heart
    • Blood vessels
  20. What does the cardiovascular system do?
    Rapid transport of nutrients, waste products, respiratory gases and cells
  21. What kind of tissue is blood?
    Fluid connective tissue
  22. Blood plasma
    Liquid component consisting of 92% water and 8% solutes
  23. Formed Elements
    • RBC
    • WBC
    • Platelets
  24. Neutrophils
    • first phagocytes at the site of infection, release leukotrienes, phagocytosis of foreign substances
    • 40-70% of WBC pop.
    • 3-7 lobed nucleus
    • pale purple cytoplasm with small granules
  25. Eosinophils
    • Phagocytes attracted to foreign compounds that have reacted with antibodies aid in allergic reactions and parasite infections
    • 1-4% of leukocytes
    • Bi-lobed shaped nucleus
    • Large cytoplasmic granules that stain orange in color
  26. Basophils
    • Migrate to damaged tissue and release histamine and heparin that helps to mediate iflammatory responses
    • Ratest WBC <1%
    • U or S shaped nucleus
    • Very dark granules that stain dark purple
  27. Monocytes
    • enters peripheral tissue and becomes a macrophage (masters of phagocytosis)
    • Largest WBC
    • 4-8% of pop.
    • Kidney shaped nucleus
    • Grey-blue cytoplasm
  28. Lymphocytes
    • Interact with antigens to fight infection
    • Smallest WBC
    • 20-45% of WBC pop.
    • Large nucleus and small rim of cytoplasm
  29. Vascular Phase
    Smooth muscle will constrict causing local vasoconstriction
  30. Platelet Phase
    Platelets start sticking to rough edges, more and more come until platelet plug can be formed
  31. Coagulation Phase
    • Extrinsic pathway
    • Intrinsic pathway
    • Common pathway

    All three are positive feedback and Vit K is required for the formation of the 4 clotting factors (2 7 9 10)
  32. Extrinsic Pathway
    • A rapid pathway that begins out side the bloodstream
    • Damaged tissues outside of the vessel send tissue factor 3 into the blood
    • Begin clotting process (involves calcium ions)
  33. Intrinsic Pathway
    • slower
    • formation of prothrombinase
    • begins within bloodstream
    • activates factor 7
  34. Common Pathway
    • Factor 10 turns into prothrombinase that converts prothrombin to thrombin
    • Thrombin converts fibrinogen to loose fibrin threads that are insoluble forming a sturdy clot
Card Set
Anatomy and Physiology 2 Exam 2
Lecture Exam 2 Chap 19