n300 final review

  1. carcinoma?
    starts in the skin or in tissues covering internal organs
  2. sarcoma
    begins in connective or supportive tissue
  3. leukemia
    begins in bone marrow or blood-producing cells; travels into the bloodflow
  4. lymphoma & myeloma
    cancer beginning in the immune system cells
  5. CNS cancers
    begins in brain or spinal cord
  6. diuretics used for CHF - what should the nurse monitor?
    serum potassium levels
  7. inotropic vs chronotropic actions?
    • inotropic - affects cardiac contraction
    • chronotropic - affects heart rate
  8. left-sided (aka systolic) heart failure
    • impaired ventricular contraction (decreased CO)
    • backup of blood to left atrium, then to lungs
    • symptoms: hacking cough, dyspnea, chest pain
  9. right-sided (aka diastolic) heart failure
    • due to increased blood volume
    • ventricles cannot contract to accomodate increased afterload/preload
    • backward flow to periphery
  10. pulmonary edema often occurs synonmyously with what sided HF?
  11. depolarization?
    contraction of the ventricle/atrium
  12. repolarization?
    resting period after contraction
  13. trace cardiac conduction through the heart, in order
    • starts in SA node
    • travels to AV node
    • Bundle of His (in the bundle branches)
    • Purkinje fibers
  14. during cardiac rehab - should the pt be doing isometric or isotonic exercises?
    • isotonic.
    • isotonic - gradually increases HR. jogging, etc
    • isometric - quick increase in HR. requires more oxygen. ie, weight lifting or shoveling snow
  15. mitral valve prolapse?
    • mitral valve (between LA and LV) is leaky, and blood may seep back into LA from the LV.
    • symptoms: similar to HF, chest pain, palpitations, activity intolerance.
    • during physical exam: "mitral click" heard as extra heart sound
  16. mitral stenosis?
    • mitral valve hardens. causes buildup of fluid in LA b/c blood is not getting to LV
    • risk of emboli due to pooling blood
    • right-sided failure will also occur eventually since it is being overworked
  17. symptoms of right-sided HF?
    • peripheral edema
    • hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)
    • jugular vein distention
    • ascites
    • murmurs
Card Set
n300 final review
review for n300 final