1. structures of the urinary system
    • urinary tract.
    • 2 kidneys (rt,lt) filtration.
    • 2 ureters (rt,lt) go thru kidneys to bladder.
    • 1 urinary bladder.
    • 1 urethra urine passes thru, leaves body.
  2. ureter length
    approximately 10 to 11in. in length and are only about 1cm.(< 1in.) round at the thickest point, which is the entry point of the bladder.
  3. nephron
    • primary filtration unit
    • regulate the amount of water, salts, glucose, urea and other minerals in you body.
    • glucose absorbption.
    • located in the renal cortex.
  4. renal cortex
    • outer region of kidney.
    • over 1,000,000 microscopic units(nephron).
    • nephron and the medulla(pyramids) play a key role in the filtration process.
  5. dysuria
    painful or difficult urination
  6. nocturia
    excessive urination during the night.
  7. functions of the urinary system
    • *maintains homeostasis of H2O, Nat, pH levels in body fluids(ions).
    • *production of erthropoietin hormone that regulates RBC production.
    • *removes excessive fluid(edema).
    • *absorbs H2O (hydration).
    • *filters the blood to remove urea(waste).
    • *converts waste products into urine in the kidneys.
  8. kidney function
    serios health problems occur when ppl have less than 2.5% of there kidney function.
  9. glomerulus
    • main filter of the nephron and is located within Bowman's capsule.
    • cluster of capillaries.
    • semipermeable, allows water and waste pass thru and excreted out of the Bowman's capsule as urine.
  10. edema
    • swelling
    • excessive fluid
  11. cause of acute renal failure
    • *sudden, serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys.
    • -hemorrhage, (gunshot) trauma (MVA) or sepsis (UTI, meningitis) can reduce blood flow to the kidneys. also dehydration.
    • *damage from medicines. gantamicin and streptomycin, aspirin, IBprofen and Zestril and Lisinopril.
    • *sudden blockage. stops urin flow out of the kidneys. nephrolithiasis, nephroma, enlarged prostate gland can cause blockage.
  12. nephrolithiasis
    • stones in the kidneys.
    • crystals in the urine clump together.
    • the course of Liths is associated with risk factors that may include diet(oxalates) UTI and metabolic disorder.(gouf)
    • enlarged prostate gland can cause blockage, stops urine flow to the kidneys, leading to acute renal failure.
  13. father of dialusis
    • Dr. Willem Kolff
    • made the 1st dialyzer in 1943.
  14. dialysis aka dialusis (cleaning blood)
    • dia-thru
    • lysis-loosening.
    • 300,000 americans on dialysis spend 15 to 20 hrs. a week hooked to machines in clinics.
    • at least 3X a week(3-4hrs per session) this patient stops his life to take care of his health.
  15. SG
    • specific gravity 1.005-1.025
    • measures weight and composition of urine.
  16. ketones
    • chemical urine exam
    • (dehydration, starvation, and dieting) Neg.
  17. hyperproteinuria
    presence of abnormally high concentrations of protien in the urine.
  18. b vitamins
    • turn urine a eye popping bright yellow and carrot juice can tint it orange as well Septra and Pyridium(Rx).
    • most changes in urine color are harmless and temporary, the result of certain foods, dyes, supplements or presccription drugs.
  19. chemical analysis of urine
    • quantity (1-2 liters 24hrs.)
    • odor (WNL, foul/sweet)
    • color (straw, light yellow,yellow,dark yellow, amber)
    • transparency ( claer,turbid, cloudy, apaque)
  20. nephron unit #
    over 1,000,000 microscopic units
  21. acute renal failure
    • kidneys suddenly stop working.
    • waste products fluid and electrolytes build up in body.
  22. female/male urethra
    • xx(female) 1-1.5in.
    • xy(male) 7-8in.
  23. liths (stone)
    • calcium oxalate (common) calcium that is not used by the bones and muscles goes to the kidneys. when calcium stays in the kidneys, it joins with other waste products to to form a cacium kidney stone.
    • the course of Liths is associated with risk factors that may include diet(oxalates) UTI and metabolic disorder.(gouf)
  24. polyuria
    frequent urination
  25. hematuria
    presence of blood in the urine.
  26. proteinuria
    presence of protein in the urine
  27. bacteriuria
    bacteria in the urine.
  28. quantity of blood filtered in 24hrs
    • 200qt (50 gallons) in a days time.
    • 2qt waste products and extra water.
  29. body blood supply
    25% about 1/4 of body blood supply passes thru kidneys every min.
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