1. Growth
    • The result of cells producing new cells through cell division
    • As this occurs, cells differentiate to develop into specialized cells with different functions
  2. Repair
    • When the cells surrounding an injury are stimulated to divide repeatedly to form what is missing
    • this is called regeneration
  3. Reproduction
    • Asexual Reproduction: the production of offspring by a single parent without combining genes from another individual(mitosis)
    • Sexual Reprodution: the production of offspring by combining genetic material from two parent organisms (meiosis)
  4. Cell Cycle
    • The sequence of phases in the life cycle of a cell
    • Two parts:
    • +Interphase
    • +Cell Division:
    • -Mitosis
    • -Cytokinesis
  5. Interphase
    • The part of the cell cycle that occurs between divisions
    • 90% of total time in cell cycle
    • Growth and preparation
  6. G1 Phase
    • Growth and development of the cell
    • Normal cell metabolism(how fast the body uses energy)
  7. S Phase
    Chromosomes (contain DNA) replicate, or make copies of themselves
  8. G2 Phase
    • Cell synthesizes organelles and other materials
    • Centrioles replicate to form two pairs
  9. Cell Division
    • Mitosis
    • Cytokinesis
  10. Mitosis
    The process in which a nucleus divides to form two new nuclei. During this process, the DNA duplicates and then divides into two identical sets. One-celed organisms reproduce by this process
  11. Cytokinesis
    The process in which the cytoplasm divides into two parts. Each of the two new parts contains a newly formed nucleus with one set of genetic material as well as half the number of the organelles of the original, or parent cell.
  12. Prophase
    • Chromosomes in nucleus condense
    • In the cytoplasm, a bridge of proteins assemble into microtubules, forming a fibrous strcture called the mitotic spindle
    • Late prophas: mitotic spindle stretches out between opposite poles of the cells
    • Nuclear envelope and nucleolus break into fragments and disappear
    • Centromeres of chromosomes attach to spindle fibers, which move them toward the center of the cell
  13. Metaphase
    • Chromosomes are pulled to the center of the cell which is called metaphase plate
    • Then each chromosome is lined up at an equal distance from the ends of the cell
  14. Anaphase
    In this phase centromeres divide and spindle fibers pull chromatids apart toward the opposite poles of the cell. Two identical sets of daughter chromosomes or DNA is created
  15. Telophase
    • Last phase, two daughter nuclei are formed
    • Reverse of prophase- nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes
    • Chromosomes uncoil to form loose mass of chromatin
    • Mitotic spindle disappears
  16. Replication
    make copies of themselves
  17. DNA
    The hereditary, or genetic material of the cell that has information on how to make cell parts and instructions for RNA to use on how to make proteins. It is found in the form of a double helix. It also has information that controls cellular activities. This controls how an organism is made up and how it works as a whole.
  18. Chromatin
    The term used for the form of nuclear DNA that is a mass of thin, twisted thread that are wound around proteins called histones. DNA is found in this form throughout most of interphase, when the cell is not dividing. It makes up a chromosome.
  19. Chromosome
    It is DNA that is condensed into short, thick rod-like structures. There are most noticeable when the cell is about to divideor is in the process of dividing. Each replicated chromosome consits of two sister chromatids.
  20. Chromatid
    A half of a chromosome
  21. Centromere
    The point where sister chromatids are joined together
  22. Spindle Fibers
    Microtubules which form and stretch across the cell to act as guides and separate chromosomes.
  23. Centriole
    Organizes mitotic spindle and involved in completion of cytokinesis
  24. Cancer
    Cancer is the uncontrolled division of particular cells
  25. Anti-Mitotic
    It stops mitosis which prevents the cancer cells from dividing and therefore stops the tumor of cancer from growing.
Card Set
When do cells divide?