Cardiopathology S1M3

  1. Valves are covered in
  2. What is the annulus of the heart
    A ring that attaches the valve to the heart muscle
  3. Stenosis
    Orifice is narrowed
  4. Prolapse
    Leaflets reflect backwards
  5. Insufficiency
    Leaflets do not come together
  6. Regurgitation
    Blood flows backward
  7. What is the most common stenosis of valves
    Mitral and aortic valves
  8. Pulmonic stenosis is almost always
  9. What is stenosis typically caused by
    Calcification in old age (degenerative)
  10. What heart disease can cause stenosis of the heart valves
    Rheumatic heart disease
  11. What are the signs and symptoms of valve stenosis
    • Systolic murmur (aortic stenosis)
    • Weakened pulse (aortic stenosis)
    • Left ventricular hypertrophy (aortic stenosis)
    • Atrial Fibrilation (mitral stenosis)
  12. How does right atrial stenosis cause atrial fibrilation
    The right atrial chamber dialates causing an improper electrical signal conduction
  13. What are the two major causes of mitral valve stenosis
    • Degenerative
    • Rheumatic heart disease
  14. What causes valve prolapse
    • Typically a connective tissue disorder like marfan's Ehler-Danlos (mitral valve)
    • Can also be caused by chordae tendinae rupture or papillary muscle rupture (myocardial infarct)
  15. Myxomatous degeneration
    Weakening of connective tissue, common cause of mitral valve prolapse
  16. What are the signs and symptoms of Prolapse/Insufficiency/regurgitation
    • Mid systolic click with late systolic murmur
    • Click- valve flapping backward
    • Murmur- blood flowing backward
  17. What is the down side to mechanical heart valves
    They are prone to infection and blood clots
  18. What are the two categories of congenital heart disease
    • Acyanotic
    • Cyanotic
  19. Congenital heart disease
    Malformation of normal cardiac development
  20. What is the most common congenital heart defect
  21. Holysystolic
    Murmur starts in systole and continues into diastole
  22. Eisenmenger syndrome
    With a hole between the the left and right ventricles, the lungs are prone to high pressure from the left ventricle and can cause pulmonary hypertension. Only happens when surgery isn't done early in life
  23. What change takes place in the flow of blood in Eisenmenger syndrome
    It turns from a left to right flow between septums to a right to left flow
  24. What are the four mechanical issues in tetralogy of fallot
    • Pulmonic atresia/stenosis
    • Right ventricular hypertrophy
    • Over-riding aorta
    • Ventricular septal defect
  25. Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common
    Cyanotic congenital heart defect
  26. What determines the severity of tetralogy of fallot
    The degree of pulmonary stenosis
  27. What is the most common Acyanotic heart defect
    Ventricular septal defect
  28. What percent of down syndrome children have heart abnormalities
Card Set
Cardiopathology S1M3