Psych test 2

  1. What are the key ear structures?
    • Pinna: Outer ear or "sound collector
    • Eardrum: vibrates in response to sound waves
    • Ossicles: middle earbones convert vibrations into smaller motions
    • Cochlea: houses inner ear's neural tissue
  2. What is Auditory Localization?
    it helps us to have timing and to place our location where ever we are
  3. Tactile System
    pressure, temperature, and pain

    when pain occurs the brain uses endorphines to suppress
  4. Chemical Senses
    • Smell: inhalation of molecules
    • Taste: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and Unami (savory/meaty)
  5. The "Sixth" and "Seventh" senses
    • Kinesthetic Sense: Monitors positions and movement of body parts
    • Vestibular Sense: aids in balance
  6. Gestalt Psychology
    integrate informational pieces in organised whole
  7. Form Perception
    • Figure/Ground: seperate figure (object of interest) from the ground (objects not of interest)
    • Grouping: organize stimuli into coherent groups
  8. Depth Perception
    eye senses 2D --> brain makes #D (allows us to determine depth)
  9. Depth Cues
    • Monocular: available to one eye
    • Binocular: dependent on both eyes
  10. Retinal Disparity
    Compares difference between 2 eyes
  11. Relative Height
    Objects higher in field of vision appear farther away
  12. Reletive Size
    assumed objects are of the same size, smaller objects in the field of view are farther away
  13. Interpositions
    if an objects blocks another, the one block is in front of the other
  14. Liniar Perspective
    the more assumes parallel lines converge, the farther away it gets
  15. Light and Shadow
    objects that reflect more light are closer then those farther away
  16. Perceptual Set
    metal predisposition to see one thing and not another
  17. Context Effects
    enviromental effect perception (teacher at class vs. teacher at the store)
  18. Conciousness
    Awareness and enviroment
  19. Selective Attention
    Focusing on particular stimulus
  20. Unattentional Blindness
    failing to see objects because attentino is directed elsewhere
  21. Circadian Rythms
    biological 24-hour clock (regulates alertness and temperature)
  22. Owls vs. Larks
    • Owls: awake at night
    • Larks: awake in the day
  23. Microsleep
    your brain makes you fall asleep whatever you are doing if the need is dire
  24. Sleep Stages
    • Beta: alert wakefulness
    • Alpha: Relaxed awake state
    • Stage 1: Theta waves, hallucinations and hypnagogic experiences common, easily awakened
    • Stage 2: Sleep Spindles (rapid brain waves), sleep talking common


    • Stages 3&4: Deep Sleep, delta waves, hard to awaken
    • REM: Rapid Eye Movement; vivid dreams, relaxed muscles (resemble Alpha waves)
  25. Benifits of Adequate Sleep
    improved mood, more efficient, improves memory, strengthens immune system, lessens risks of fatal accidents, reduces premature aging, lessens risk for obesity and hypertention
  26. Insomnia
    Persistant trouble falling asleep, difficult to remain asleep, wake early in the morning
  27. Narcolepsy
    uncontrollable sleep attacks
  28. Sleep Apnea
    temporary laps of breath and momentary awakening
  29. Nightmare
    anxiety- arousing dreams, usually in the REM cycle
  30. Night Terror
    Non-REM, abrupt awakening accompanied w/ intense arousal and panic
  31. Hypnosis
    heightened state of seggestibility
  32. Hypnosis ability varies
    some people are more suseptable then others
  33. Hypnosis can cause
    anethesia, sensory distortion, disinhabition, posthypnotic amnesia and increase relaxation
  34. Can be resisted through:
    social influence and divided conciousness
  35. Drug Abuse Book
  36. Criteria for "Abuse"
    • Failure to fulfill major roll @ work or school or home b/c of use
    • Use in sotuations potentially dangerous
    • Substance related legal problems
    • Continued use despite problems caused
  37. Adiction
    craving for substance despite negetive consequences
  38. Tolerance:
    larger amount required to achieve same effect
  39. Withdrawl
    discontinued use leads to discomfort
  40. Depressence Drugs
    Alchohal, Opiates, and Setatives
  41. Stimulant Drugs
    increase central neurvous system activation
  42. Cannabis
    Derived from hemp plant, leads to euphoria and mild hallucinasion
  43. Hallucinogens
    sensory distortion and mental/emotional effects
  44. MDMA
    related to amphetamines and hallucinogens
  45. How Drugs Work
    imitate neurotransmitters, stimulate neurons, and block reputake
Card Set
Psych test 2
modules 11-17 for test 2