Vascular Development S1M3

  1. When does the vascular system begin to develop
    Week 3
  2. Blood vessel formation begins in what areas
    Embryo and yolk sac
  3. The initial connection of the embryo to the placenta happens by when
    Week 4
  4. The early vessels for the embryo and yolk sac are derived from
    Splanchnic mesoderm
  5. What are the primitive cells that line cavities called, and what do they form
    Angioblasts, endothelial lining of blood vessels
  6. What develops into the blood cells
  7. What is vasculogenesis
    Formation of blood vessels from no pre-existing vessels
  8. Angiogenesis
    Branching of major vessels to form new vessels
  9. What is VEGF
    Vascular Endothelial Growth factor, stimulates vessel growth
  10. What five paired arteries develop in association with pharyngeal/branchial arches
    Aortic arches (cranio-caudal) 1,2,3,4,6 and attach to the truncus arteriosus
  11. Where do the aortic arches arise from and connect to
    They arise cranially from the aortic sac on the distal part of the truncus arteriosus, and connect to the left and right dorsal aortae
  12. The dorsal aortae stay separate in the region of the aortic arches but fuse on the caudal portion to form what
    Descending aorta (Fused from T4-L4)
  13. The first aortic arche develops into
    Maxillary arteries (Internal axillary art.) but most of the arch degenerates before this
  14. The second aortic arch develops into
    Hyoid artery with stapedial arteries arising from them
  15. The stapedial artery is transiently present in fetal life but connects what branches
    Future external carotid artery to the internal carotid artery
  16. Persistent stapedial artery (PSA)
    Is a condition that is usually manifest as a mass in the middle ear cavity
  17. The 3rd aortic arch develops into
    Common carotid arteries and internal carotid arteries
  18. Asymmetry occurs with the aortic arch first in what branch and how
    4th, Left side becomes arch of aorta, right side becomes right subclavian artery
  19. What is the distal portion of the right subclavian derived from
    7th intersegmental artery
  20. What arises from the fifth aortic arch
  21. Sixth aortic arch (asymmetric) develops into what
    • Right side forms the right pulmonary artery
    • Left side forms the ductus arteriosus and some of the left pulmonary artery
  22. The ductus arteriosus is known after birth as
    Ligamentum arteriosum
  23. What nerve loops under the 6th aortic arch (Ductus Arteriosus)
    Left recurrent laryngeal nerve
  24. What nerve branches at the ductus arteriosus
    Vegus nerve, branches into the left vegus and left recurrent pharyngeal nerve
  25. What nerve loops under the right 4th aortic arch (right subclavian)
    Right recurrent laryngeal, a branch of the right vegus nerve
  26. Coarctation of the aorta (CoA)
    • A constriction or narrowing of the aorta, most commonly found distal to the left subclavian artery
    • It can be classified however as pre or postductal
  27. If a patient has the condition of Coarctation Aorta that is preductal, what happens in the vasculature
    • Patent Ductus arteriosus permits continuous blood flow to the inferior of the body by its connection to the pulmonary artery and then to the aorta below the constriction
    • Most die within a few months
  28. Preductal Coarctation Aorta has what manifestations in the ventricles and why
    RV hypertrophy due to the extra flow needed in the pulmonary artery, this leads to pulmonary hypertension
  29. Postductal Coarctation has what changes in vascularity to compensate
    Collateral branches form via intercostal and thoracic arteries, fed by the internal thoracic artery
  30. Double aortic arch is when
    Failure of the right dorsal aorta to regress making two dorsal aortae, this can cause a constriction of the esophagus and trachea
  31. When the yolk sac regresses, what happens to the vitelline arteries
    • They form an anastomoses with the dorsal aorta and eventually develop into
    • Celiac
    • Superior mesenteric
    • Inferior mesenteric
    • "It's Vital to watch CSI"
  32. What are the umbilical arteries initially connected to
    Dorsal Aortae in sacral region
  33. What happens to the umbilical arteries in the fifth week of development
    They change from being connected to the dorsal aorta, and connect to internal iliac arteries
  34. What circulatory changes happen to the umbilical arteries at birth
    • Umbilical arteries close a few minutes after birth (permanently 2-3 months)
    • Proximal Umbilical art. are retained to form superior vesicle arteries (internal illiac)
    • Distal parts are obliterated to yield medial umbilical ligaments
  35. What do the vitelline veins eventually form
    • A plexus around the duodenum (portal vein)
    • Left vitelline disintegrates
    • Right vitelline enlarges and becomes the hepatic portion of the inferior vena cava
  36. What happens to the cardinal veins at the seventh week of development
    • New cardinal veins develop
    • Supracardinal - Drain body wall
    • Subcardinal - Drain kidneys
    • Sacrocardinal - Drain lower extremities
  37. The cardinal veins give rise to
    Renal, Adrenal, gonadal, azygos, and hemiazygos veins.
  38. The inferior vena cava consists of what three segments
    • Hepatic
    • Renal
    • Postrenal
  39. What does the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava derive from
    Right vitelline vein
  40. What does the renal segment of the inferior vena cava derive from
    Right subcardinal vein
  41. What does the postrenal vein derive from
    Right sacrocardinal vein
  42. What does the superior vena cava form from
    Anastomoses between the right common cardinal vein and the right anterior cardinal vein
  43. What does the left brachiocephalic do, and what vein is it derived from
    • Functions to shunt systematic blood form the left to the right side of the body
    • Anastomoses between the left and right anterior cardinal veins.
  44. What happens in blood circulation if the inferior vena cava and the hepatic segment fail to form
    Blood from the caudal parts of the body drains via the azygos and hemiazygos veins into the superior vena cava
  45. What causes a double inferior vena cava
    The left sacrocardinal vein fails to lose its connection with the left subcardinal vein
  46. What causes a left superior vena cava
    Failure of the left anterior cardinal vein to obliterate
  47. What causes a double superior vena cava
    The persistence of the left anterior cardinal vein and failure of left brachiocephalic vein to form
  48. What are the three shunts in the fetal circulation
    • Ductus arteriosis (bypass lungs)
    • Foramen ovale (bypass right ventricle)
    • Ductus venosus (bypass liver)
  49. In an adult what does the ductus arteriosus end up forming
    Ligamentum arteriosum
  50. What is the adult derivative of the ductus venosus, and umbilical vein
    • Ligamentum venosum
    • Ligamentum teres hepatic
Card Set
Vascular Development S1M3