Respiratory Path

  1. Cystic Fibrosis
    • hereditary disease caused by defective gene middle of chromosome 7
    • characterized by secretion of excessively viscous mucous by all exocrine glands
    • Lungs: mucous secreted blocks air passages causing area of lung to collapse and infections
    • Pancreas: mucous prevents pancreatic enzymes from entering duodenum and impairing digestion of fats
    • Sweat Glands: perspire excessively losing large quantities of sodium, potassium and chloride
  2. Hyaline Membrane Disease (Respiratory Distress Syndrome)
    • breathing disorder of premature newborns in which the alveoli do not remain open due to lack of surfactant
    • results in atelectasis (diminished air within the lung - reduced lung volume)
    • Radiographic Appearance: fine granular appearance of pulmonary parenchyma
  3. Diaphragmatic Hernia
    • congenital birth defect that involves the abnormal development of the diaphragm
    • malformation allows the abdominal contents to protrude into the chest impeding proper lung formation
  4. Croup
    • viral infection in young children that produces inflammatory obstructive swelling to subglottic portion of trachea
    • as it progresses, it causes inflammatory edema and spasm which may obstruct airway
    • Radiographic Appearance: AP C-Spine shows narrowing of airway
  5. Epiglottitis
    • acute infection in children that causes thickening of epiglottic tissue and surrounding pharyngeal structures
    • Radiographic Appearance: Lateral soft tissue neck will demonstrate a rounded thickening of the epiglottic shadow
  6. Sinusitis
    • inflammation of the mucous membrane of one or more paranasal sinuses
    • can be caused by microbial infection, allergies, nasal polyps, or deviated septum
    • Radiographic Appearance: acute or chronic sinusitis causes mucosal thickening which appears as a soft-tissue density lining the walls of the sinuses (horizontal beam required to demonstrate air fluid levels)
  7. Pneumonia
    acute infection or inflammation of the lung most commonly causes by bacteria or viruses
  8. Alveolar Pneumonia
    • inflammatory exudate replaces air in the alveoli
    • affected area is radiopaque
  9. Bronchopneumonia
    inflammation originates in airways and spreads to alveoli which produces small patches of consolidation
  10. Interstitial Pneumonia
    involves walls and lining of alveoli and alveoli septa and produces a linear or reticular pattern
  11. Aspiration Pneumonia
    • caused by aspiration of esophageal or gastric contents
    • appears as multiple alveolar densities
    • occurs in patients with neuromuscular swallowing disturbances
    • can be related to general anesthetic, trauma, and alcohol abuse
  12. MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
    • bacteria resistant to broad-spectrum antibodies
    • remains mostly on the skin, but can penetrate into the body causing potentially life-threatening infections
  13. Tuberculosis (TB)
    • caused by bacteria
    • spread by coughing
    • has resurfaced recently as a stronger, more resistant that is more difficult to treat
    • Radiographic Appearance: may resolve completely but if necrosis and caseation (necrotic degeneration) develop, some fibrous scarring occurs
  14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    • includes several conditions in which chronic obstruction of airways leads to ineffective exchange of respiratory gases and makes breathing difficult
    • Includes: bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis, pneumoconiosis

    predisposing factors include cigarette smoking, infection, air pollution, and occupational exposure to harmful substances
  15. Bronchitis
    • inflammation of the bronchi that leads to severe coughing with production of sputum
    • Radiographic Appearance: generalized increase in bronchovascular markings will be demonstrated which may lead to emphysema
  16. Emphysema
    • obstructive and destructive changes in small airways lead to a dramatic increase in volume of air in the lungs
    • air enters lungs but bronchial narrowing and loss of elasticity make it difficult for the patient to exhale leading to over-inflammation of lungs with eventual rupture of alveolar septa
    • destroyed alveoli replaced by large air-filled sacs called bullae
    • Radiographic Appearance: flatting of the diaphragm and and increased size and lucency of retrosternal air space
    • Barrel Chest
  17. Asthma
    • bronchi become narrowed due to mucosal swelling, excessive secretions of mucous and spasm of muscles in the bronchi
    • breathing becomes difficult (wheezing)
    • asthma attacks caused by allergies, exercise, heat or cold exposure or emotional stress
  18. Bronchiectasis
    • permanent abnormal dilation of one or more large bronchi - destruction of elastic and muscular components of bronchial wall
    • results of a bacterial infection
    • Radiographic Appearance: chest x-ray may show a coarseness and loss of definition of interstitial markings; oval and cystic spaces (honeycomb pattern) can develop in chronic cases
  19. Pneumoconiosis
    • prolonged exposure to certain irritating particulates (silicosis, asbestosis, anthracosis)
    • Radiographic Appearance: pulmonary fibrosis and a diffuse nonspecific radiographic pattern of linear streaks and nodules throughout the lungs
  20. Pulmonary Metastases
    • may develop from hematogenous or lymphatic spread from musculoskeletal sarcomas, myeloma, and carcinomas of the breast, urogenital tract, thyroid, and colon
    • Radiographic Appearance: multiple, relatively well circumscribed, round of oval nodules throughout the lungs (pattern may vary from fine miliary nodules to huge "cannonball" lesions)
  21. Pulmonary Embolism
    • embolus transported by the blood stream to the lungs
    • most arise from thrombi that develop in the deep venous system of the lower extremities
    • can cause pulmonary infarct
    • may be a complication from surgery of the abdomen or pelvis, pregnancy, oral contraceptives, tumors, vascular injury, lower extremity fractures
    • Radiographic Appearance: chest x-ray will appear normal of non-specific and a CT appears as filling defect of occlusion
  22. Atelectasis
    • diminished air within the lung
    • most commonly the result of bronchial obstruction
    • air is unable to enter the part of the lung supplied by the obstructed bronchus and lung can eventually collapse
    • Radiographic Appearance: local increase in density caused by airless lung that may vary from this platelike streaks to lobar collapse
  23. Foreign Bodies
    aspiration of solid foreign bodies into the tracheobronchial tree which can cause partial or complete obstruction
  24. Subcutaneous Emphysema
    • caused by penetrating or blunt injuries that disrupt the lung and parietal pleura and force air into the tissues of the chest wall
    • Radiographic Appearance: streaks of lucency outline muscle bundles of chest wall
  25. Pulmonary Edema
    • abnormal accumulation of fluid in the extravascular pulmonary tissues
    • most common cause is elevation of pulmonary venous pressure usually due to left-sided heart failure
    • Radiographic Appearance: accentuation of vascular markings about the hila produces a perihilar haze
    • Severe pulmonary edema has a butterfly pattern
  26. Pneumothorax
    • air in the pleural cavity that results in partial or complete collapse of the lung which can be caused by trauma, lung biopsy, complication of emphysema or a spontaneous event in healthy tall, thin, young male
    • Radiographic Appearance: hyperlucent area in which all pulmonary markings are absent (taken x-ray in upright position)
  27. Plueral Effusions
    • accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity
    • causes can include congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, infection, pleurisy, and neoplasms
    • Radiographic Appearance: blunting of sharp costophrenic angle
Card Set
Respiratory Path
respiratory pathology cards