Antiviral; treats hepatitis B & C; goal is to decrease viral load.
Beta blocker; reduces portal venous pressure, reduces esophageal varices bleeding.
Antidiuretic hormone; hemostasis and control of bleeding in esophageal varices, constriction of splanchnic arterial bed; central diabetes insipidus due to deficient ADH.
Antidiarrheal, hormone; treats esophageal varices, decrease bleeding and pressure; treats severe diarrhea by supressing secretion of serotonin and gastroenterohepatic peptides, increasing F&E absorption from GI tract; treats acromegaly by suppressing growth hormone, insulin, and glucagon.
Reduces ammonia levels in GI tract; acidification of feces, traps ammonia for elimination in feces.
Antiviral; in conjunction with alpha interferon, treats hepatitis B.
ribavirin (Rebetol, Virazole)
Antiviral; in conjunction with alpha interferon, treats hepatitis C.
neomycin sulfate (Neo-Fradin)
Antibiotic; treats hepatic encephalopathy by decreasing number of ammonia-producing bacteria in GI tract.
Prostaglandin, antiulcer agent; prevention of gastric mucosal injury from NSAIDs in high-risk patients, decreases gastric acid secretion, increases production of protective mucus.
Antiemetic; prevent chemotherapy-related and postop N/V, blocks dopamine receptors in chemorecepter trigger zone of CNS, stimulates upper GI motility and gastric emptying.
GI protection, antiulcer agent; duodenal ulcers, coats and protects ulcerated surface.
- Competitively inhibit action of acetylcholine
- Atropine: Bradyarrhythmias
- Ipratropium: Broncospasm and rhinorrhea
- Scopolamine: Nausea and vomiting r/t motion sickness and vertigo
- Propantheline & glycopyrrolate: Decreasing gastric secretory activity, increasing esphageal spincter tone
- Prevent/treat constipation
- Bisacodyl, sennosides: Stimulants
- Magnesium salts & phosphates: Saline laxative
- Docusate: stool softener
- Polycarbophil & psyllium: Bulk-forming agents
- Lactulose, polyethylene, glycol/electrolyte: osmotic carthartics
5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA) & sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)
GI antiinflammatory, antirheumatic; inflammatory bowel diseases including ulcerative colitis, Crohn's colitis, proctitis, proctosigmoiditis, locally acting in colon where activity of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition is occurring.
Neutrolizes stomach acids by increasing pH.
Proton pump inhibitors
Reduce gastric acid production by inhibiting proton pump; omeprazole, esomeprazole.
H2 blockers (H2 receptor antagonists)
Blocks action of histamine on stomach's parietal cells, decreasing production of stomach acid; cimetidine, ranitidine (Zantac).