Psyc ch. 8 test 2

  1. Wechsler defined intelligence as:
    global capacity to act with purpose, think rationally, and effectively cope with the environment
  2. Alfred Binet was appointed to a committee that tried to establish a better method for....
    identifying kids who needed special help at school
  3. Alfred Binet and the holistic approach
    the test was very successful at predicting...
    school success because it tested abilities needed at school
  4. complicated statistical procedure that combines scores from separate test items into several factors, which can substitute for the separate scores
    factor analysis
  5. noticed people who scored high on some test items tended to score high on others as well; he concluded the test items were measuring an underlying general intelligence (g)
    Spearman and g
  6. Spearman noticed test items measured different specific abilities (s), but believed g was the _____
    central aspect of intelligence that deserved attention
  7. Rejected the idea of "general intelligence" identifying 7 mental abilities
  8. Thurstone's primary mental abilities (7)
    verbal comprehension, numerical ability, spatial relations, perceptual speed, word fluency, memory, and reasoning.
  9. Thurstone suggested the idea of constructing a profile that provides _____ .
    strength and weaknesses for each person instead of one total score
  10. Crystallized vs. fluid intelligence
  11. culturally-loaded, fact-oriented information;
  12. ability to see complex relationship and solve problems
    fluid intelligence
  13. because crystallized intelligence is impacted by ____, this type of intelligence ____ across the lifespan.
    • experience
    • increases
  14. Fluid intelligence may not be impacted by experience. It is believed to peak in ____ adulthood and gradually ____ thereafter.
    • early
    • decline
  15. formulated 3 components of intelligence
  16. Sterberg's triarchic theory of intelligence
    • componential
    • experiential
    • contextual
  17. mental abilities typically measured by traditional IQ tests (e.g. knowledge, cognitive strategies)
  18. creativity and quick learning of new tasks so they become automatic
  19. practical intelligence (e.g. adapting on'es kills shaping a situation to meet on'es needs, or changing contexts)
  20. this aspect of intelligence is strongly affected by culture (e.g. street smart, common sense)
  21. denied a g factor and proposed 8 independent, equally important forms of intelligence
  22. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (8)
    linguistic, logico-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, intrapersonal
  23. correlations between gardners 8 forms of intelligence would be quite _____, a person can have very high ability in one area and very low in others
  24. there is _____ support for gardner's theory of multiple intelligence (i.e. damage to a specific brain region only influences specific abilities)
  25. Researchers point out the differences between tests that are:
    • group administered
    • individually administered
  26. Group-administered tests
    • paper and pencil format
    • no education required to administer
    • efficient
  27. individually administered tests
    • allows observation of testing behavior
    • more accurate assessment
    • time consuming
    • expensive
    • graduate degree required
  28. Stanford-Binet intelligence scale if for what age group?
    2 years to early adulthood
  29. standfor-binet intelligence scale 5th edition includes 15 subtests that combine to provide a General IQ score and 5 factor scores:
    • fluid reasoning
    • quantitative reasoning
    • knowledge
    • visual-spatial reasoning
    • working memory
  30. this test appears to be fairly useful for middle childhood and adolescence, not for preschoolers
    standford-binet intelligence test
  31. Wechsler Inteligence Scale for Children 4th edition (WISC-IV) for ages ____
    • 6 to 16 years
    • also available for adults
  32. Wechsler that is available for preschoolers?
  33. WISC-IV includes numerous subtests that yield scores for:
    • Full Scale IQ
    • Verbal IQ
    • Performance IQ
    • 4 factor scores (verbal reasoning, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed)
  34. What does the WISC-IV allow identification of?
    strenghts and weakenesses
  35. Components of Good tests
    • reliability
    • validity
    • standardization
  36. the test must consistently yield the same score when people are tested repeatedly (or almost the same)
  37. the test must measure what it is inteded to measure. Does it correlate wit other IQ tests? Does it correlate with oter abilities/aptitudes with which it should be related?
  38. establishing norms for comparing scores of people who will take the test in the future; administering the test to many people also allows for the development of the administration procedures
  39. Intelligence test scores conform to a standard normal curve, with most ....
    clustering around the middle and a few at each extreme (tail)
  40. What is the average IQ
  41. IQ
    ____% fall between 90 and 110 (average range)
  42. IQ

    _____% fall between 70 and 130
  43. About ____% have IQ scores above 130
    • 2
    • (gifted)
  44. now giftedness is not only based on ____ but also on ____
    • IQ
    • Creativity and excellence in visual or performance arts
  45. speical programs for gifted children include ____
    acceleration (to skip a grade) and/or enrichment (SPARK program)
  46. about _____% have IQ scores below 70

    (mental retardation)
  47. Mental retardation is defined as...
    IQ below 70 along with impaired adaptive functioning
  48. Four levels of Mental retardation
    • mild IQ=55-70
    • Moderate IQ=40-54
    • Severe IQ=25-39
    • Profound IQ=<25
  49. ______% have a mild level of MR
  50. _____% have a moderate level of MR
  51. _____% have a severe level of MR
  52. ____% have a profound level of MR
  53. Children's test scores become more ____ and become better predictors later _____ as they get older.
    • stable
    • IQ
  54. children with higher IQ test scores tend to:
    • have higher achievement test scores
    • make better grades in school
    • stay in school longer
  55. IQ scores begin to correlate with adult educational attainment at about age ____ years.
  56. Children with higher IQ scores at age 7+ are more likely to enter _____ professions.

    law, medicine, science, engineering
  57. The relationship between IQ and occupational status is not perfect, and other factors are involved, such as....
    • motivation
    • personality
    • family history
    • who you know
  58. Children with higher IQ scores appear more ______ competent (though other factors are involved)
  59. Children with higher IQ scores are less likely to become ______ and are less likely to experience ______.
    • delinquents
    • academic failure
  60. IQ scores appear unrelated to .....
    • anxiety
    • depression
    • social withdrawal
  61. While IQ scores may predict future success or failure, a single test score should not be used to make major educational decisions. Why?
    could have had a bad day, been sick, testing conditions, stress, etc...
  62. _____ are NOT predictive of later performance or academic achievement.
    preschool tests
  63. Some tests are believed to be ______ biased and, as such, only highly trained examiners should be involved in interpretation of test results.
  64. Some tests are not appropriate for use with specific population, so test selection is a very important and cautious process. Examples?
    • learning disability
    • sensory impairment
  65. ______ appear to impact test performance.
    testing conditions
  66. characteristics of good testing environments include....
    • good lighting
    • space
    • comfort
    • noise free
  67. Highly trained and experienced examiners are very important for obtaining _________ performance from children.
    accurate and optimal
  68. Nature: argument for _____ contibutions to intelligence.
  69. Nurture: argument for _______ contributions to intelligence
  70. How is the nature-nurturee debate addressed?
    The case for nature:
    • twin studies: identical twin scores are most similar
    • general kinship studies: similar
    • adoption studies: kids IQ more similar to birth parents
  71. How is the nature-nurture debate addressed?
    The case for nurture:
    different types of environmental factors are divided into shared and non-shared environmental influences
  72. What is shared environmental influences?
    • those that pervade the home and are simiar for all children
    • e.g. stimulating toys/activities
  73. What is non-shared environmental influences?
    • those that make siblings different from each other
    • e.g. birth order, special events, differential parental treatment
  74. What are the versions of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) ?
    • infancy
    • preschool
    • middle childhood
  75. HOME scores are strongly correlated with _______, especially at ______.
    • IQ
    • younger ages
  76. For toddlers and preschoolers, several HOME factors are linked to better language (and thus, IQ) scores...
    • organized, stimulating environment
    • parental encouragement and involvement
    • affection
    • talking-conversation with kids
  77. In middle school, the relationship between HOME and IQ scores ______.
    • weakens
    • because children spend more time in other environments (e.g. school)
  78. The extent to which parents value and emphasize intellectual success influences children's _____, regarless of SES.
    academic success
  79. Evaluation of _______ environmental influences reveals they are very important.
  80. Exposure to non-shared environmental influences _____ results in noted differences in IQ scores of siblings reared in the same home.
    outside the home
  81. Early studies demonstrating a link between non-shared factors like birth order and spacing were flawed...what has recent research revealed about these two factors?
    they are unrelated to IQ
  82. Studies reveal _____ intervention has powerful effects on IQ scores, whereas _____ intervention has little or no impact.
    • early
    • later (middle childhood)
  83. Early research for project HEAD START found only _____ improvement.
  84. better longitudinal research for project Head Start found gains in IQ and achievement during the first ______ years of elementary school, but these gains disappeared thereafter.
    2 to 3
  85. Project head start; longer-term gains were seen in....
    • avoidance of special ed
    • being retained
    • graduation rates
  86. What kind of effect is associated with project head start?
    washout effect
  87. positive IQ gains were short - term; believed to result from low-quality schools attended by children living in poverty after head-start.
    washout effect
  88. Head-Start provides more than cognitve/academic assistance, such as....
    • social skills
    • nutrition/health benefits
    • parenting skills
  89. Long term gains for one specific program, the High/Scope Perry Preschool program, such as...
    • graduating from high school
    • higher incomes
    • getting married
    • home ownership
    • avoiding prison
  90. the ability to produce work that is original and appropriate
  91. the ability to generate multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem
    divergent thinking
  92. the ability to generate a single correct answer to a problem
    convergent thinking
  93. for many years, creativity was believed to be based on ___
    divergent thinking
  94. What is now believed to comprise creativity?
    many factors like intelligence
  95. For a long time it was thoug individuals either were or were not BORN with creativity. Now there is evidence that many factors influence one's level of creativity, several of whaich are ...
    a product of one's environment
  96. Sternberg and Lubart provided one model called ______ which described 4 groups of influential factors of creativity.
    Investment Theory of Creativity
  97. 4 groups of the Investment Theory of Creativity
    • Cognitive Resources
    • Personality Resources
    • Motivational Resources
    • Environmental Resources
  98. ability to find a problem
    ability to define a problem
    alternating between divergent and convergent thinking
    having insight
    evaluating of competing ideas
    knowledge (expertise or talent)
    cognitive resources
  99. innovative thinkers
    people who tolerate uncertainty
    patience and perseverance
    willingness to take risks
    courage and faith in one's ideas
    personality resources
  100. maintaining focus on the task, rather than the goal
    intrinsic, rather tahn extrinsic, motivators (e.g. not for a prize)
    motivational resources
  101. stimulating activities
    encouragement of intellectual curiousity
    acceptance of one's individuality
    formal instruction relevant to child's talents
    available time to think and reflect
    challenging, extended projects that promote use of personality and cognitive resources
    Environmental Resources
Card Set
Psyc ch. 8 test 2
test 2