Wechsler defined intelligence as:
global capacity to act with purpose, think rationally, and effectively cope with the environment
Alfred Binet was appointed to a committee that tried to establish a better method for....
identifying kids who needed special help at school
Alfred Binet and the holistic approach
the test was very successful at predicting...
school success because it tested abilities needed at school
complicated statistical procedure that combines scores from separate test items into several factors, which can substitute for the separate scores
noticed people who scored high on some test items tended to score high on others as well; he concluded the test items were measuring an underlying general intelligence (g)
Spearman and g
Spearman noticed test items measured different specific abilities (s), but believed g was the _____
central aspect of intelligence that deserved attention
Rejected the idea of "general intelligence" identifying 7 mental abilities
Thurstone's primary mental abilities (7)
verbal comprehension, numerical ability, spatial relations, perceptual speed, word fluency, memory, and reasoning.
Thurstone suggested the idea of constructing a profile that provides _____ .
strength and weaknesses for each person instead of one total score
Crystallized vs. fluid intelligence
culturally-loaded, fact-oriented information;
ability to see complex relationship and solve problems
because crystallized intelligence is impacted by ____, this type of intelligence ____ across the lifespan.
Fluid intelligence may not be impacted by experience. It is believed to peak in ____ adulthood and gradually ____ thereafter.
formulated 3 components of intelligence
Sterberg's triarchic theory of intelligence
mental abilities typically measured by traditional IQ tests (e.g. knowledge, cognitive strategies)
creativity and quick learning of new tasks so they become automatic
practical intelligence (e.g. adapting on'es kills shaping a situation to meet on'es needs, or changing contexts)
this aspect of intelligence is strongly affected by culture (e.g. street smart, common sense)
denied a g factor and proposed 8 independent, equally important forms of intelligence
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (8)
linguistic, logico-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, intrapersonal
correlations between gardners 8 forms of intelligence would be quite _____, a person can have very high ability in one area and very low in others
there is _____ support for gardner's theory of multiple intelligence (i.e. damage to a specific brain region only influences specific abilities)
Researchers point out the differences between tests that are:
- group administered
- individually administered
- paper and pencil format
- no education required to administer
individually administered tests
- allows observation of testing behavior
- more accurate assessment
- time consuming
- graduate degree required
Stanford-Binet intelligence scale if for what age group?
2 years to early adulthood
standfor-binet intelligence scale 5th edition includes 15 subtests that combine to provide a General IQ score and 5 factor scores:
- fluid reasoning
- quantitative reasoning
- visual-spatial reasoning
- working memory
this test appears to be fairly useful for middle childhood and adolescence, not for preschoolers
standford-binet intelligence test
Wechsler Inteligence Scale for Children 4th edition (WISC-IV) for ages ____
- 6 to 16 years
- also available for adults
Wechsler that is available for preschoolers?
WISC-IV includes numerous subtests that yield scores for:
- Full Scale IQ
- Verbal IQ
- Performance IQ
- 4 factor scores (verbal reasoning, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed)
What does the WISC-IV allow identification of?
strenghts and weakenesses
Components of Good tests
the test must consistently yield the same score when people are tested repeatedly (or almost the same)
the test must measure what it is inteded to measure. Does it correlate wit other IQ tests? Does it correlate with oter abilities/aptitudes with which it should be related?
establishing norms for comparing scores of people who will take the test in the future; administering the test to many people also allows for the development of the administration procedures
Intelligence test scores conform to a standard normal curve, with most ....
clustering around the middle and a few at each extreme (tail)
What is the average IQ
____% fall between 90 and 110 (average range)
_____% fall between 70 and 130
About ____% have IQ scores above 130
now giftedness is not only based on ____ but also on ____
- Creativity and excellence in visual or performance arts
speical programs for gifted children include ____
acceleration (to skip a grade) and/or enrichment (SPARK program)
about _____% have IQ scores below 70
Mental retardation is defined as...
IQ below 70 along with impaired adaptive functioning
Four levels of Mental retardation
- mild IQ=55-70
- Moderate IQ=40-54
- Severe IQ=25-39
- Profound IQ=<25
______% have a mild level of MR
_____% have a moderate level of MR
_____% have a severe level of MR
____% have a profound level of MR
Children's test scores become more ____ and become better predictors later _____ as they get older.
children with higher IQ test scores tend to:
- have higher achievement test scores
- make better grades in school
- stay in school longer
IQ scores begin to correlate with adult educational attainment at about age ____ years.
Children with higher IQ scores at age 7+ are more likely to enter _____ professions.
law, medicine, science, engineering
The relationship between IQ and occupational status is not perfect, and other factors are involved, such as....
- family history
- who you know
Children with higher IQ scores appear more ______ competent (though other factors are involved)
Children with higher IQ scores are less likely to become ______ and are less likely to experience ______.
- academic failure
IQ scores appear unrelated to .....
- social withdrawal
While IQ scores may predict future success or failure, a single test score should not be used to make major educational decisions. Why?
could have had a bad day, been sick, testing conditions, stress, etc...
_____ are NOT predictive of later performance or academic achievement.
Some tests are believed to be ______ biased and, as such, only highly trained examiners should be involved in interpretation of test results.
Some tests are not appropriate for use with specific population, so test selection is a very important and cautious process. Examples?
- learning disability
- sensory impairment
______ appear to impact test performance.
characteristics of good testing environments include....
- good lighting
- noise free
Highly trained and experienced examiners are very important for obtaining _________ performance from children.
accurate and optimal
Nature: argument for _____ contibutions to intelligence.
Nurture: argument for _______ contributions to intelligence
How is the nature-nurturee debate addressed?
The case for nature:
- twin studies: identical twin scores are most similar
- general kinship studies: similar
- adoption studies: kids IQ more similar to birth parents
How is the nature-nurture debate addressed?
The case for nurture:
different types of environmental factors are divided into shared and non-shared environmental influences
What is shared environmental influences?
- those that pervade the home and are simiar for all children
- e.g. stimulating toys/activities
What is non-shared environmental influences?
- those that make siblings different from each other
- e.g. birth order, special events, differential parental treatment
What are the versions of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) ?
- middle childhood
HOME scores are strongly correlated with _______, especially at ______.
For toddlers and preschoolers, several HOME factors are linked to better language (and thus, IQ) scores...
- organized, stimulating environment
- parental encouragement and involvement
- talking-conversation with kids
In middle school, the relationship between HOME and IQ scores ______.
- because children spend more time in other environments (e.g. school)
The extent to which parents value and emphasize intellectual success influences children's _____, regarless of SES.
Evaluation of _______ environmental influences reveals they are very important.
Exposure to non-shared environmental influences _____ results in noted differences in IQ scores of siblings reared in the same home.
outside the home
Early studies demonstrating a link between non-shared factors like birth order and spacing were flawed...what has recent research revealed about these two factors?
they are unrelated to IQ
Studies reveal _____ intervention has powerful effects on IQ scores, whereas _____ intervention has little or no impact.
- later (middle childhood)
Early research for project HEAD START found only _____ improvement.
better longitudinal research for project Head Start found gains in IQ and achievement during the first ______ years of elementary school, but these gains disappeared thereafter.
2 to 3
Project head start; longer-term gains were seen in....
- avoidance of special ed
- being retained
- graduation rates
What kind of effect is associated with project head start?
positive IQ gains were short - term; believed to result from low-quality schools attended by children living in poverty after head-start.
Head-Start provides more than cognitve/academic assistance, such as....
- social skills
- nutrition/health benefits
- parenting skills
Long term gains for one specific program, the High/Scope Perry Preschool program, such as...
- graduating from high school
- higher incomes
- getting married
- home ownership
- avoiding prison
the ability to produce work that is original and appropriate
the ability to generate multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem
the ability to generate a single correct answer to a problem
for many years, creativity was believed to be based on ___
What is now believed to comprise creativity?
many factors like intelligence
For a long time it was thoug individuals either were or were not BORN with creativity. Now there is evidence that many factors influence one's level of creativity, several of whaich are ...
a product of one's environment
Sternberg and Lubart provided one model called ______ which described 4 groups of influential factors of creativity.
Investment Theory of Creativity
4 groups of the Investment Theory of Creativity
- Cognitive Resources
- Personality Resources
- Motivational Resources
- Environmental Resources
ability to find a problem
ability to define a problem
alternating between divergent and convergent thinking
evaluating of competing ideas
knowledge (expertise or talent)
people who tolerate uncertainty
patience and perseverance
willingness to take risks
courage and faith in one's ideas
maintaining focus on the task, rather than the goal
intrinsic, rather tahn extrinsic, motivators (e.g. not for a prize)
encouragement of intellectual curiousity
acceptance of one's individuality
formal instruction relevant to child's talents
available time to think and reflect
challenging, extended projects that promote use of personality and cognitive resources