1. Females' growth spurts occur an average of ____ years earlier than males' growth spurts.
  2. At what age range do females growth spurt range?
    • Females: 8 or 9 to 14
    • Males: 10 to 16
  3. Because of the different growth spurt ranges between males and females, for a brief time between the agers of 10 and 14 _________
    girls are larger than boys
  4. In the prenatal period the head comprises a large proportion of total body lenth (_____) due to _____.
    • 1/2 to 1/4
    • early brain growth
  5. The trend of the head comprising a large proportion of total body lenth dimishes with age until ______, when the head comprises about ____ of the total body size.
    • adulthood
    • 1/8
  6. Body fat increases at the end of the ______ stage and continues to increase after birth, reaching a peak at about _____.
    • prenatal
    • 9 months
  7. Baby's body fat helps the baby maintain _____.
    body temperature
  8. Babies begin to slim down in the _____ year of life and continue to do so into middle childhood.
  9. Starting at about age ____, girls add body fat while males continue to lose body fat.
  10. Muscle gradually accumulates throughout childhood and dramatically increases during ____.
  11. While both sexes gain muscle during puberty, boys gain _____% more than girls.
  12. The fact that boys gian 150% more muscle during puberty than girls likely contributes to boys' greater _____ during adolescence.
    athletic performance.
  13. Explosion in Motor Skills during preschool and middle childhood is caused by:
    • increased size
    • increased strength
    • changing proportions (balance)
  14. Motor skills are gradually acquired as children gorw, and these skills become better developed according to their:
    • increased size and strength
    • interests and goals
    • environments
  15. Chldren spend less time in informal, outdoor play than in previous generations due to:
    • safety concerns
    • technology
  16. Meanwhile, organized have drastically expanded. ____% of North American children (____% of boys and _____% of girls) participate in organzed sports at some point between ages 5 and 14.
    • 50
    • 60
    • 40
  17. Reseach indicates that as long as parents and coaches emphasize effort, improvement, and teamwork, participation is related to:
    • social skills
    • higher self-esteem
    • enjoyment of sports
    • persistence
  18. When competition is over-emphasized and coaches or parents exert too much pressure on children to perform well, the results include:
    • emotional problems
    • dropping out
    • poor performance
  19. sex differences in motor development in preschool:
    Boys are slightly stronger than girls
  20. Sex differences in motor development at age 5
    boys can jump slightly farther, throw 5' farther and run slightly faster
  21. Sex differences in motor development at age 12
    boys can throw 43' farther and are better at kicking, batting, catching, and dribbling
  22. Sex differences in motor development at age 12
    Girls are better in fine motor skills (handwriting), balance, and agility (e.g. hopping, skipping)
  23. _______ appears to be responsible for the increasing sex differences in motor skills
  24. Sex differences in motor skills are _____ in early childhood, and encouragement of different activities for boys and girls leads to _ of those differences.
    • small
    • increase
  25. In _____, the federal government required schools to provide equal opportunities for males and females in all areas, including ____.
    • 1972
    • athletics
  26. the federal goverment requiring schools to provide equal opportunities for males and females in athletics has increased girls' participation in sports, but there is still a gender gap in high school sports participation (____% vs. ____%)
    • 60
    • 50
  27. Physcial activity _____ with age for both sexes, partly due to cutbacks in physical education programs in high school.
  28. only ____% of American high school students take any physical education, and only _____% do so every day.
    • 54
    • 33
  29. the only hormone produced continuously throughout life span
    Growth Hormone (GH) by pituitary gland
  30. This hormone is produced continuously throughout the lifespan, and it is responsible for tissue growth, DNA synthesis, and cell duplication
    Growth Hormone
  31. This homone is responsible for early brain growth, metabolism, bone growth, and cell size and deuplication
  32. This hormone is responsible for the changes of puberty in females, though it is also present in smaller amounts in males
  33. This hormone is responsible for the changes of puberty in males, though it is also present in smaller amounts in females
  34. This hormone is found in both genders, bus has little effect on males; it is respnosible for the growth spurt and some of the changes of puberty in females
  35. The major difference between "primary" and "secondary" sex characteristics is:
    primary sex characteristics are neccesary for reproducation, while secondary sex characteristics are not
  36. Growth hormone is responsible for:
    • body tissue growth
    • DNA synthesis
    • Cell Duplication
  37. What are growth hormones by?
    pituitary gland
  38. Thyroxine is responsible for:
    • early brain growth
    • energy metablism
    • bone growth
    • cell size and duplication
  39. Thyroxine is by :
    thyroid glands
  40. Estrogen responsible for:
    • pre-adolscent growth spurt
    • increased bone density
    • added body fat
    • development of females' reproductive organs
    • breast development
    • regulation of menstrual cycle
  41. estrogen is by:
  42. testosterone and androgens responsible for:
    • pre-adolescent growth spurt
    • increased bone density
    • muscular growth
    • development of males' reproductive organs
    • growth of body hair
    • increased sex drive
  43. testosterone is by:
  44. androgens is by:
    adrenal glands
  45. over the past 150 years, children in industrialized nations have become _____ and _____, this is due to _____.
    taller and heavier

    faster rate of development
  46. Children also reach puberty ____ today than in the past
  47. These secular trends of physical growth are the result of _____.
    improved health and nutrition
  48. In most nations the secular trend has slowed or stopped, but in the US and a few European countries, higher rates of _____ have led to continued______.
    • obesity
    • decrease in age of first menstruation
  49. first menstruation
  50. first ejaculation
  51. average age of first menstruation (menarche)
    • 12 1/2 years; range 10.5-15.5 years
    • typically, for 12-18 months no eggs are released
  52. Average age of first ejaculation (spermarche)
    • 13 years
    • typically, early semen contains few living sperm
  53. Females' reactions to changes in puberty?
    • historically: traumatic
    • Today: mixed emotions
    • prior education and family support are important
  54. Males' reactions to changes in puberty?
    • generally less informed than females
    • less likely to tell someone
  55. Higher sex hormones are related to moodiness between the ages of _____, with higher ___ and ____ in males and ___ and ____ in females. Moods are generally ______.
    • 9 and 14
    • anger and irritability
    • anger and depression
    • unstable
  56. Generally, adolescents report ______ life events, and during these events are more likely to report ______.
    • more negative
    • negative moods
  57. Adolescents respond to negative life events with greater ______.
    • emotion
    • Cognitive abilities?
  58. _______ influences are both evident in adolescents.
    situational and hormonal
  59. Compared to younger ages, parent/child relations during adolescence are commonly characterized by:
    • more conflict
    • feeling "less close"
    • resistance to "family time"
  60. The changes in the parent-child relationship are believed to have ______ significance, as many species reveal "adolescents" leaving "home"
  61. Because humans cannot leave home at puberty, it is thought that a ______ occurs instead of a physical one.
    psychological departure
  62. Generally the conflict between parent and child is ____ and ____ continues. Successful families report adapting toward ______ for the child while maintaining _____ that are mutually satisfying.
    • mild
    • affection
    • independence
    • close bonds
  63. Early Maturation develment in males:
    • more independent
    • popular
    • leader
    • athletic
    • confident
  64. Late Maturation development in males
    • anxious
    • talkative
    • attention-seeking
  65. Early maturation development in females
    • social problems
    • lack confidence
    • popular with boys
  66. Late maturation development in females
    • more confident
    • popular
    • leader
    • sociable
  67. for Both sexes, early maturation is linked with:
    Long term effects?
    • earlier sexual activity
    • delinquency
    • drug use

    Explanation: body image, coping skills, perceived as different

    Long term effects: not really
  68. Anorexia Nervosa:
    • self-starvation
    • weight loss (25-50%)
    • do not know they have a problem
    • harder to treat
  69. Bulimia Nervosa:
    • binge eating and purging
    • may not lose weight
    • more aware of problem
    • more common
    • easier to treat
  70. How are anorexia and bulimia similar?
    • more common in females
    • middle and upper class families
    • family or other pressure
    • pathological fear of gaining weight
  71. There are wide variations in education for and expectations of adolescents on the topic of sexuality. These differences range from:
    cultures that expect their teens to engage in sexual activity to cultures who impose the death penalty on teens who have sex.
  72. The US has relatively ____ attitudes regarding teen sexuality. For example, parents typically:

    • do not discuss sex
    • discourage exploration
    • embarrassed
  73. Research suggests that teens whose parents discuss sexuality in the context of a warm and open relationship are more likely to adopt their parents' _____ and take fewer ____.
    • values
    • sexual risks
  74. Many parents do not realize where their children will get information about sex if it doesn't come from them. Teens commonly find out about sex from:
    • peers
    • internet
    • media (tv)
    • books/magazines
  75. One survey of 1500 teens in the US revealed _____% of teens had viewed online pornography in the past ____ months (ages 10 to 17).
    • 42
    • 12
  76. Studies revealed that exposure to sexuality on ____ was strongly related to ______.
    sexual practice and future intention to have sex
  77. Despite our relatively restricitve attitudes, teens in the US have sex at a ______ age than teens in Canada and Western Europe.
  78. Teens in the US are more likely to have had ______ sexual partners.
  79. Compared to previous generations, attitudes toward sexuality are more _____ among today's adolescents.
  80. A recent conservative trend has been noted among adolescents, perhaps because of concerns about _____
  81. Teens' ____ are often more liberal than their _____.
    • attitudes
    • behavior
  82. Most teens in the US have had only _____ sexual partners by the end of high school.
    1 or 2
  83. Percentages of high school students reporting ever having sexual intercourse:
    • Males: 52%
    • Females: 48%
  84. Percentage rates by grade level of high school students reporting ever having sexual intercourse:
    • 9th: 39%
    • 10th: 47%
    • 11th: 53%
    • 12th: 65%
  85. Characteristics of sexually active teens include:
    • large families
    • lack of supervision
    • parent conflict
    • academic problems
    • lower goals (college)
    • poverty (Low SES)
    • sexually active peers/siblings
    • early puberty
  86. ___ to ____ of sexually active American teens use contraception only occasionally or not at all.
    1/3 to 1/2
  87. Reasons teens give for not practicing safe sex included:
    • inaccurate information
    • concern about others' opinions
    • too afraid to ask
    • believe sex should be spontaneous
    • believe they are invincible
  88. ____ to ___% of teens identify themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
    2 to 3
  89. Interviews with homosexual and bisexual youths and adults reveal they commonly experience a 3-phase sequence in achieving their sexual identity:
    • feeling different
    • confusion
    • self-acceptance
  90. Gay and lesbian teens often report the following:
    • social isolation
    • efforts to hide their sexual orientation
    • concerns about what will happen if they tell someone
  91. A cross-cultural study of 500 gay and lesbian teens revealed that ____% had been verbaly abused and ____% had been physically attacked.
    • 75
    • 15
  92. _____ of sexually active teens will contract an STD (2.5 million in the US)
  93. ______% of all AIDs cases are diagnosed in 20-29 year olds, meaning they contracted the virus during adolescence.
  94. While drug-using and homosexual adolescents account for most cases of AIDS, _____ transfer is greatly increasing.
  95. It is ______ easier for a male to infect a female than for a female to infect a male.
    2 times
  96. In a cross-cultural comparison, the US is # ______ in teen pregnancies amongst advanced nations
  97. In a cross-cultural comparison, rates of teen pregnancy have recently decreased for the first time in decades, from almost 10% in the 1980s and 1990s to less than ____% today.
  98. _____% of pregant teens in the US have an abortion, and ___% have a miscarriage; thus the rate of teens giving birth and raising children are not higher here than in other countries.
    • 40
    • 13
  99. Contributing factors of teen pregnancy:
    • poverty
    • lack of supervision
    • lack of parental involvement
    • academic problems
    • adult models
    • alcohol/drug abuse
    • peer models
  100. _____% of pregnant teens drop out of high school at least temporarily (compared to only 4% of non-pregnant teens)
  101. Most Pregnant teens remain single today(_____% compared to 15% in 1960) and face problems typical of single parents but more pronounced.
  102. Those pregnant teens who do marry because of pregnancy have very high _____
    divorce rates
  103. Many teen parents are emotionaly _____ and lack basic____ skills.
    • immature
    • parenting
  104. Most teen parents have trouble obtaining and maintaining gainful ______; they require ____ or ____ assistance.
    • employment
    • government
    • family
  105. Most pregnant teens do not take care of themselves or seek medical attention; thus, rates of _____ are higher
  106. Children of teen parents have higher rates of:
    • behavior problems
    • academic problems
    • teen pregnancy
  107. The development of neurons is largely complete by the end of the _____ trimester of pregnancy.
  108. Brain growth beyond birth involves the development of a more intricate system of _____ between neurons.
  109. Neuronal fibers extend to join with neighboring neurons---constantly forming new connections (_______). Stimiluation of neurons promotes additional connective growth.
  110. _____ cells develop rapidly from the 4th month of pregnancy through the 2nd year of life, and then continue to increase gradually. this is responsible for the increases in skull size and brain weight.
  111. At birth, the brain is ____% of its adult weight.
  112. At 6 months, the brain is ____% of its adult weight.
  113. At 2 years, the brain is ____% of its adult weight.
  114. At 6 years, the brain ____% of its adult weight.
  115. two hemispheres have specialized functions
  116. lateralization is underway at birth, and is believed to serve an ____ function (e.g. brain can serve a greater variety of functions); experience speeds this up.
  117. the ability of brain tissue to take over the functions of damaged tissue
    brain plasticity
  118. brain plasticity is greatest.....
    in the 1st years
  119. Stimulus Deprivation (at "Critical stages") leads to ______
    slower brain growth (size)
  120. Animals exposed to extreme____ deprivation during postnatal growth spurts had brain degeneration and thus, permanent damage (e.g. kitten kept in darkness never developed sight).
  121. EEG studies of humans suggest that physical brain growth spurts are correlated with advances in cognitive abilites. These spurts have been observed at the following ages:
    • prenatal
    • 1.5 to 2 years
    • 9 years
    • 12 years
    • 15 years
    • 18 to 20 years
  122. Evidence for heredity's contribution to physical growth includes:
    • twin studies
    • "catch-up growth"
  123. what is catch up growth?
    if growth is stunted temporarily, growth catches up later
  124. Genetics influence our producation of and sensitivity to ______
    hormones (inclusing GH)
  125. Genetics influence not only _____ but also body____
    • height
    • weight
  126. The pollutant most commonly studied with regard to child development is ____
  127. lead exposure today is much lower due to reduction of lead in ____ and ___ fumes.
    • paint
    • gasoline
  128. About ____% of low SES children and ____% of African American children living large cintral cities have significant lead levels, likely the result of ......
    • 16
    • 37

    older homes or neighborhoods near plants that use lead
  129. Early studies on the relationship between lead exposure and cognitive development were flawed; howeve, more recent longitudinal studies have revealed the following outcomes, with cumulative effects, and some appear to be irreversible:
    • lower verbal skills (lower IQ)
    • motor skill deficits
    • distractibility
    • hyperactivity
    • behavior problems
  130. Factors that may increase the impact of lead exposure include:
    • low income
    • vitamin deficiency (Zinc, Iron)
  131. Over ____% of American mothers breastfeed, which is believed to be the healthiest method of feeding infants.
  132. Reasons for NOT breastfeeding:
    • medications
    • drugs
    • health conditions
  133. Solid foods should be introduced by ____
    6 months
  134. All basic food groups are needed before _____
    1 year
  135. Appetite commonly ___ as growth slows (between ages 1 and 2)
  136. Strong preferences for foods commonly emerge in ______
    early childhood
  137. The ____ environment plays a large role in which foods a child will like
  138. Maintaining a _____ mealtime climate is very important.
  139. pleasant
  140. ______ exposure to a new food (without being forced to eat it ) increases the likelihood the child eventually try and like the food.
  141. Bribing children with unhealthy foods lead to _____
    unhealthy habits
  142. In adolescence, rapid growth and changes leads to a dramatic _____ in appetite and eating habits.
  143. Food choices of teens are often _____
  144. _____ are common during adolescence
    Vitamin deficiencies
  145. About ____% of the world's children are undernourished
  146. Extrme malnutrition is liked to:
    • stunted growth
    • lower IQ
    • impaired motor skills
    • attention deficits
    • poor strss responses
    • mental illness
    • low metabolism
    • later obesity
  147. Obesity is defined as weight that is more than _____% above average body weight based on age, sex and physical build.
  148. Rates of obesity have gradually increased since the ___
  149. About ____ North American children are overweight
  150. there is no link between weight in infancy and later weight problems, but ___% of children who are overweight in middle childhood remain overweight into adulthood.
  151. Factors that contribute to obesity:
    • genetics
    • early feeding habits
    • low income
    • excessive tv viewing
    • lack of exercise
    • cultural environment
  152. Consequences of obesity during childhood include:
    • social problems
    • emotional problems
    • health problems
  153. in developing countries, _____ is a common cause of death in infants and toddlers
  154. such diseases (diarrhea) rarely claim lives in countries where ____ are common
  155. in _____, federal law guaranteed free immunizations to all children in the US; however, ____% of American preschoolers still lack needed immunizations.
    • 1994
    • 24
  156. Infectious diseases are especially life-threatening when combined with ______.
  157. In extreme cases, children suffer serious _____ as a result of ____.
    • physical retardation
    • emotional neglect
  158. present by 18 months; characterized by apathy, withdrawal, anxiety; has a wasted appearance despite no biological casue (no serious illness and suffecient food is offered.)
    Nonorganic Failure to Thrive
  159. may appear between 2 and 15 years of age; characterized by sub-average stature, wight that is appropriate for height; immature skeletal age, and decreased secretion of GH: GH levels return to normal following removal from emotionally deprived environment.
    psychosocial dwarfism
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