Cancer Principles

  1. Carcinoma
    cancer that begins in the skin and tissue that lines or covers internal organs
  2. Sarcoma
    cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue.
  3. What are the 7 signs of cancer
    • C hange in bowel habits
    • A sore that does not heal
    • U nusual bleeding or discharge from body
    • T hickening or a lump in the breast or elsewhere
    • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
    • O bvious change in wart or mole
    • N agging cough or hoarseness
  4. What is the only difinitive means of diagnosing cancer
  5. What is the name of a cancer that begins in the cells of the immune system?
    lymphoma or myloma
  6. cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood.
  7. What are the 3 main factors that cancers are staged on
    • The size of the primary tumor
    • Whether the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes
    • Whether the tumor has spread to distnant areas
  8. Cachexia
    extreme body wasting and malnutrition
  9. What is Prophylactic surgery
    the removal of “at-risk” tissue to prevent cancer development.
  10. What is diagnostic surgery
    • removal of all or part of a suspected lesion for examination and testing. It provides proof of the presence of cancer.
    • Biopsy
  11. Curative Surgery
    focused on removal of all cancer tissue.
  12. What is cancer control or cytoreductive surgery?
    removing part of the tumor and leaving a known amount of gross tumor. It is also known as “debulking” surgery and alone cannot result in a cure. It decreases the number of cancer cells and increases the chances that other therapies can be successful.
  13. What is external beam radiation
    • teletherapy
    • delivery of radation from some distance from the target area
  14. What is internal beam radiation
    • brachytherapy
    • Involves placement of specially prepared radioisotopes directly into or near the tumor itself or into the systemic circulation.
  15. Why is chemotherapy administered through a central line?
    to prevent necrosis
  16. When should an antiemetic be administered? Before or after chemo?
  17. What is the normal neutrophil count
    • 1500-8000
    • 500-1500
    • less than 500
  18. if thrombocyte count falls below _____, it is life threatening
  19. An appropriate nursing intervention to promote nutrition
    in a cancer pt is:
    encourage protein for immune system and normal cell recovery
  20. For what cancers are bone marrow transplants used for?
    Why are they used with chemo?
    • Leukemia, multiple myloma, and lymphoma
    • to wipe out immune system so the marrow can be transplanted
  21. Where are tumor markers usually found
    blood or urine
  22. Carcinoembyonic antigen (CEA)
    Alphafetoprotien (AFP)
    Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M)
    Bladder tumor antigen(BTA)
    Prostatic Specific Antigen (PSA)
    §Tumor Necrosis Factor
    are all examples of what
    Tumor markers
Card Set
Cancer Principles