cold climate and short growing season. only hardiest cold-tolerant plants can survive. found in sub-antarctic islands of Southern Hemisphere. plants have short, prostrate growth form, with mosses, lichens, sedges, and dwarf trees dominating flora.
animals: small herbivores, like snowshoe hares, lemmings and voles
large animals: caribous and musk ox
40-100 cm of rainfall annually
evaporation rates: low.
forest soils tend to be wet.
domianted by coniferous evergreens, capable of withstanding ocld winters and high snowfalls.
variety of deer species, including carnivores: lynx, mink, sable, weasels, wolverine and wolves.
warm summer sand cold winters
-loads of rainfall
-support wide variety of deciduous trees.
-animals: herbivorous (or omnivorous): deer, bears, wild board, badgers, squirrels, and other rodents.
predators: wolves, foxes, cats, and owls.
30-85 cm year rainfall
-low precipitation = decomposition is slow and soils tend to be rich and fertile.
mediterranean climates: relatively mild, with winter rains and summer droughts.
dry summers = frequent fires.
vegetation dominated by woody shrubs with small, mostly evergreen leaves that are hard, thick, and waxy
animals: large herbivores like deer and elk and others: mtn lions and wolves.
<25 cm rain per year
-vegetation is sparse and dominated by drought-resistant shrubs
warm, 90-150cm precipitation. prolong dry period of 3-4 months during which receive less than 5 cm per month. -tall grasses with heights of 3.5 m or more, drought resistant trees
abundant sunlight and relatively warm.
=200 cm of rain per year.