Ecology final

  1. example of evolution.
    Pink bollworms. -Pectinophora gossypiella.
  2. define eutrophication.
    takes place when water bodies receive large inputs of nutrients, stimulating plant growth, particularly algae. increased plant growth in turn increases inputs to decomposer systems (more plants present, more plants dying) = deoxygenation of water, which can cause aquatic animals to die.
  3. define evolution.
    a change in the composition of a population from one generation to the next.
  4. when evolution happens?
    when individuals with certain traits survive and reproduce at higher rates than others
  5. 1st assumption of natural selection.
    individuals vary. everyone is different.
  6. 2nd assumptions of natural selection.
    offspring resemble parents. passed genetically from parents to offspring.
  7. 3rd assumption of natural selection.
    survival and reproduction are selective. individuals with certain traits survive and reproduce at higher rates than those with other traits.
  8. natural selection.
    • a systematic difference in survival and reproductive success of individuals with different genotypes or phenotypes.
    • -natural selection can lead to evolutio.
  9. composition of population when variable is inhertable and influences survival and reproduction...
    automatic changes across generation. survival and reproduction becomes common.

    with one or more assumptions do not apply, composition of population may fluctuate.
  10. factors that affect what types of species are found in each place. and what are two main factors
    • factors: under or on water, amt of sunlight, availability of nutrients, pH, and other species living in that area.
    • two main factors: temperature and moisture.
  11. precipitation.
    process by which water vapor in atmosphere condenses and falls to Earth. occur as rain, snow, sleet, hail, or water vapor condensation.
  12. physiological tolerances
    • limits on environmental conditions that an organism cacn tolerate.
    • outside that range, species stops functioning properly.
  13. transpiration.
    evaporation of water from plants to atmosphere. occurs thru stomata of leaves, stems and flowers. draws water up the plants from roots, along vessels i nstems and trunks, and to leaves.
  14. evapotranspiration.
    sum of transpiration and evaporation. total amt of water leaving the ground and going back into atmosphere.
  15. potential evapotranspiration.
    • aka PET.
    • total amt of evapotranspiration that takes place if there is enough water available. actual evapotranspiration is less than PET when ground is too dry.
  16. desiccate.
    means to lose water and dry out. organisms living in very dry places such as deserts frequently evolve adaptations to prevent or cope with desiccation.
  17. distribution of species
    ...temperature and precipitation sets a broad range; other factors: soil texture and drainage, light, slope and aspect, nutrient availiability, and competition from other plants.
  18. Law of Minimum.
    growth and reproduction are limited by most scarced resource, which is specific for each species and environment.
  19. possibilities of distribution of species.
    • 1. distribution simply follows climate.
    • 2. species unable to deal with dramatic change and goes extinct.
    • 3.species change to better fit the environment.
  20. species change to better fit environment. two ways.
    • individual level: acclimates to new environment.
    • population level: over several generations, population can adapt to new environment.
Card Set
Ecology final
evolution for ecology & physiological ecoology