Anatomy Exam2

  1. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    Includes brain and spinal cords
  2. Perheprial Nervous System (PNS)
    All other nerves including all cranial and spinal cord nerves
  3. Afferent Nerve
    Carries nerve impules TOWARD the CNS
  4. Efferent Nerve
    AKA Motor Neuron/Nerve.

    • Carrying impulses towards organs and AWAY
    • from the CNS. The organs then
    • respond to the impulse, usually by contracting or secreting (or not secreting).
  5. Somatic Nervous System
    • Voluntary
    • Skeletal Muscles
  6. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Involuntary
    • Usually goes to various organs and glands that respond to impulses.
  7. Effector Organ
    Effector organs include landular secretion, organs that effect others, unlike sensory organs.

    Example: muscles, glands
  8. Integration
    analysis of input and a response is determined. Integration determines what the input means and maybe unconcious. The response is the activation of an effector organ.
  9. Sensory Organs

    1. Eyes (photoreceptors)

    2. Taste buds - chemoreceptors

    3. Ear (sound) - specialized mechanoreceptors

    4. Touch receptors - mechanoreceptors

    5. Olfaction (smell) - chemoreceptors
  10. Cell body
    AKA Soma or Perikaryon (of neuron)
  11. Neuroglia cells
    • AKA Glial Cells
    • 5 Types:
    • Astrocytes
    • Microglia
    • Oligodendrocytes
    • Ependymal Cells
    • Schwann Cells
  12. Satellite Cells
    Cells that occur on the exterior of neruons in the PNS and do not conduct nerve impulses, they surround the cell body with ganglia
  13. Grey Matter
    Nerve cell bodies
  14. White matter
    Myelinated bundles of neurons (tracts or nerves)
  15. Myelin
    Made by schwann cells and oligodendrites
  16. All or none phenomenon
    Once threshold is released action potential is self-generating
  17. Salatory Conduction
    jumping between nodes on ranvier, depolarization of the membrane occurs only at the nodes
  18. Types of Synapses
    • Kinds of synapses:
    • Axodendritic – axons to dendrites

    Axosomatic – axons to cell bodies

    Axoaxonic – axons to axons

    Dendrodendritic –dendrites to dendrites

    Dendrosomatic –dendrites to cell bodies
  19. Types of synapses
    • Electrical- large protein channels that allow charged particles to go from one cell to another (can
    • go either way in some instances) called “gap junctions”

    Chemical-utilizes neurostransmitters
  20. Examples of Neurotransmitters
    • Acetylcholine (ACh)
    • Biogenic amines including
    • dopamine,
    • norepinephrine,
    • epinephrine, serotonin, histamine
    • Amino acids
    • Peptides (neuropeptides)
    • substance P, endorphins,enkephalins
    • Others: ATP, NO, CO
  21. Blood from the entire digestive tract is funneled into the...
    Hepatic portal vein
  22. The abominal aorta terminates in a bifuraction in which the two branches are termed the...
    common iliac arteries
  23. Walls of arteries and viens differ largely in their...
    relative thickness
  24. Capillaires are the smallest kind of blood vessel. The inside diameter of capillaries are about...
    Trick question! Extremely variable
  25. The lining of all blood vessels is composed of...
  26. Artieries usually connect to vessels called
  27. Bundles of nerve fibers in the CNS are called...
  28. If one wanted to find nerological nuclei (not cell nuclei), one would look ...
    Among tracts of the spinal cord
  29. Where would one look for an internuron
    In the grey matter of spinal cord
  30. Heart beats are controlled by a series of specialized cardiac muscles fibers within the mycoradium that act like nerves and stimulate the heart. These fibers are referred to as:
    The conducting system
  31. When a mycardial infarction occurs within the mycoardium, what happens?
    Heart muscle dies
  32. The respiratory membrane in the lungs is found in...
    The lining of the alveoli
  33. Image Upload 1
  34. Image Upload 2
  35. Image Upload 3
Card Set
Anatomy Exam2
Anatomy Exam 2 Flash Cards