Micro 2 OYO

  1. When bacterial populations are heated or treated with antibiotics, at what rate do they die?
    constant rate
  2. What are some factors that influence the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatments?
    the number of microbes (the more there are the longer it take to eliminate the population), environmental influences (presence of organic matter often inhibit action of chemical antimicrobials), time of exposure (chemicals antimicrobials require extended exposure to affect more resistant microbials), microbial characteristics
  3. What has been a long time disinfectant, especially in wine-making?
    sulfur dioxide
  4. What book mentions use of sulfur dioxide for wine-making?
    Homer's Odysseus
  5. What are some common additives as food preservatives?
    sodium benzoate, sorbic acid, and calcium propionate
  6. sorbic acid and sodium benzoate prevent what?
    molds from growing in certain acidic foods (cheese and soft drinks)
  7. what does calcium propionate prevent?
    growth of surface molds an the bacillus bacterium that affects bread
  8. what are added to many meat products (ham, bacon, hot dogs) to preserve it?
    sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite
  9. sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite preserve what things in meats?
    pleasing red color (reacting with blood), and prevent germination of any botulism spores
  10. what are nitrosamines?
    carcinogenic products that are the reaction of nitrites and amino acids
  11. what is the purpose of antibiotics?
    ingestoion or injection to treat disease
  12. what two antibiotics are used in food preservation?
    nisin (cheese, to inhibit endospores), natamicyn (pimaricin) (cheese, antifungal)
  13. many what tend to be more effective against gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative?
  14. What genera of gram-negative bacteria are of special interest?
    pseudomonas and burkholderia
  15. why are pseudomonas and burkholderia interesting?
    they are unusually resistant to biocides and can grow in some disinfectants and quats
  16. what is resistance of bacteria related to in their structure?
    porins in outer layer
  17. what group of mycobacteria are extremely resistant to chemical biocides?
    mycobacterium tuberculosis
  18. how must prions be destroyed?
    carcasses are incinerated
  19. normal autoclaving is inadequate in sterilizing what media?
    surgical instruments
  20. what is the WHO and CDC's answer for autoclaving surgical media?
    combine sodium hydroxide and autoclave at 134
  21. the science of heredity
  22. the genetic information in a cell
  23. stuctures containing DNA that physically carry hereditary information
  24. segments of DNA
  25. what does a nucleotide consist of?
    nucleobase, deoxyribose, and phosphate group
  26. set of rules that determine how a nucleotide sequence is converted into amino acid sequence of a protein
    genetic code
  27. genetic makeup, codes for characteristics
  28. actual expressed properties in an orgaism
  29. most proteins in structures are either...?
    enzymatic or structural
  30. why will there always be concern about any new safety technology?
    is it nearly impossible to prove that something is entirely safe under all conceivable circumstances
  31. what are "suicide genes"?
    genes genetically engineered into organisms so after a time it produces its own toxins and kills itself to ensure safety
  32. humans may be allergic to what organism? where is it from?
    bacillus thuringiensis, fields sprayed with insecticide
  33. how old is modern technology?
    slightly older than 30 years old
  34. fungi require less what for growth?
  35. fungi are often capable of metabolizing what that bacteria cannot?
    complex carbohydrates (lignin - wood)
Card Set
Micro 2 OYO
ch 7-13